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. ' ' " / 





Universal Language 



Price 50 Cents 



• Copyright 1913 by Edward P. Foetef, 


r\EAR Friends — I mean the entire world — I have 
•*-^ a message for you. It is on a subject of inter- 
est to every one, whether President, King, Queen, 
Kaiser, Czar, Mikado, Shah, prince, peasant, subject, 
citizen, learned or unlearned, rich or poor, in Europe, 
Asia, Africa, America or the islands of the sea. 

Who am I, you may ask, who calls upon the whole 
world for attention. 

I am but one of the infinitesimal atoms, that to- 
gether constitute our common humanity, and yet, 
friends, in that respect I stand on the same level with 
any one of you. The ancient Roman actor was ap- 
plauded when he exclaimed: ''Homo sum, humani 
nihil a me alienum puto." 

My message relates to language, the greatest mark 
of distinction between man and the brute. Language 
enables us not only to share our thoughts with each 
other in the present generation, but to preserve our 
ideas and transmit them from age to age. It is by 
this means that civilization progresses. The honey 
bee of today makes no better comb or honey than 
did its ancestors five thousand years ago. But man 
has language, and makes progress, for each genera- 
tion profits by the recorded experiences of all that 


^ 4 — 

Man is a tooI-using^ animal, and the tools that he 
uses are constantly being improved. The vehicles of 
transportation and of communication, the railroad, 
the steamer, the electric car, the automobile, the air- 
ship, the telegraph, the telephone, the wireless mes- 
sages, the new inventions in agricultural implements 
and in the machinery of production, all mark stages 
in the progress of civilization. 

One of these tools, susceptible of improvement is 
language itself. 

, No one can dispute the fact that the possession of 
a thousand languages where a single one would suffice 
is in itself a heavy handicap to the progress of the 
human race. It prevents any one who may have a 
good and important idea from communicating it to 
more than a comparatively small number of his fel- 
low human beings. Whatever time or effort is ex- 
pended in the mastery of a language is so much sub- 
tracted from the sum of the benefit possible for any 
one individual to contribute to the welfare of human- 
ity, liach individual has a limited capacity. It can 
l)e expended but once. What goes to one purpose 
cannot go to another. Economy, therefore, demands 
that energy be expended effectively, and that the 
smallest portion possible of it be allowed to go to 
waste. The needless expenditure of brain power in 
the acquisition of languages, the translation and re- 
production of all our literature from one language to 

— 5 — 

another, the multiplication of papers and books of all 
descriptions, carrying with it the need of learning 
not only different words but different alphabets, and 
having these alphabets put in type for printers and 
printing machines and type-writing machines, and 
the necessity of additional scholarship in the type- 
setters who use these alphabets, and in the proofread- 
ers who read the proofs, and the further fact that 
the knowledge of languages is not transmitted by 
heredity, but must be learned anew by each genera- 
tion and by each individual, all these put together 
and summed up amount to a total that is appalling. 

The advance announcement of a new dictionary 
says: ''Some classes of words have passed out of 
use since the first edition; these were weeded out of 
the vocabulary and their places are taken by living 
words." Yet, ''more than 130,000 terms were added 
to the vocabulary, giving a total of more than 450,000 
terms. These new words have come thro many 
sources. The sciences, especially Chemistry, Geolog5% 
and Mineralogy, have supplied thousands. The ter- 
minology of Botany was completely recast by the In- 
ternational Conference of Botanists held in Vienna 
in 1905, which made it necessary to rewrite all the 
definitions in this science. Astronomers have given 
us new phenomena, explorers have given us new 
words. In Insurance, Railroading, Political Econo- 
my, Sociology, Eugenics, Aeronautics, Motoring, 

.-F. : i-.JU-.i.-rvils^JlS'PSfS^KSK 

— 6 — 

Aviation, and Motor-boating, many new terms have 
come to light. The languages of the Philippine Is- 
lands, Guam, China, India,-Polynesia, Samoa, Hawaii, 
Japan, Persia, Africa, and Egypt — every one of 
these has brought its terminology to our doors, knock- 
ing for admission." 

This is quoted from the publishers of a single dic- 
tionary in a single language. Consider now that the 
same process is going on in every language on earth 
in which books are printed, or about to be printed, 
and it becomes plainly apparent that the individual 
mind would become hopelessly bewildered and lost 
in the attempt to thread the labyrinthine mazes of 
any one of these languages. It is sufficient at any 
rate to suggest the query whether there is not danger 
that civilization may be overwhelmed and buried be- 
neath the excessive exuberance of its ow^n verbiage. 

The remedy is the creation of one common inter- 
national or universal language. 

The advent of this universally understood world- 
language is certain. To argue that point is simply 
to waste time. Send back to the kindergarten the 
man who disputes it. 

The late U. S. Commissioner of Education, Wil- 
liam T. Harris, calculated that a practical phonetic 
alphabet would save two years of the school life of 
the average child in learning English. Two years is 
but a small fraction of the time that would be saved 

7 — 

to each person by a practical scientific language. 

The past attempts to create a universal language 
manifest the need of it. Alexander dreamed of it. 
Descartes and Leibnitz pondered over the problem. 
At the present time many inventors are eagerly 
searching for its solution. 

All suggestions for solving it fall into two classes. 
One of these is to adopt universally some one of the 
already existing languages, ancient or modern. The 
other is to create a new language. 

Force of circumstances compelled at least a partial 
trial of the adoption plan. The Roman Empire ruled 
the known world, and the policy of Rome was to sub- 
stitute Latin everywhere for the vernacular of the 
subjugated tribes. That made Latin for centuries 
after the downfall of the Roman Empire the world 
language of scholarship. Afterwards French in 
large measure took its place, elfepecially as the lan- 
guage of the courts, of diplomacy and of polite 

Lately the national languages have all been push- 
ing their claims. Albania is strenuously insisting 
on the use of its own tongue. Lecturers and writers 
are recounting in glowing terms the beauties and ex- 
cellencies of Irish. The Welshman thinks he has one 
of the finest languages on earth. We cannot dispute 
him without learning Welsh, and then perhaps we 
would agree with him. So it goes all ov^^ ^^^'^"^^' 

— 8 — 

Everybody loves his mother tongue. Consequently, 
any national tongue that might be proposed as the 
universal language would have the whole field array- 
ed against it instanter. That would prevent its 
adoption, for even English, the most widely spoken 
tongue, claims but 150,000,000, while there are more 
than ten times that number of people in the world. 

The adoption of one "of the dead languages, Latin 
or Greek, as the world language has been proposed. 
But dead languages cannot be made alive again. 
They have the disadvantages of the past and none of 
the advantages of the present. 

The only possibility that remains therefore is the 
creation of a new language. 

Here again there are two methods, each of which 
has its advocates. These are technically known as 
the a priori and the a posteriori methods. 

The a priori plan begins by creating new root- 
words on which to build. It was the method of 
Urquhart and of Dalgarno. It was elaborately woik- 
ed out by Bishop Wilkins, brother-in-law of Oliver 
Cromwell. He was one of the founders of the Royal 
Society of London and its first secretary. He was 
commissioned by the Society to create a world lan- 
guage. The result was the publication in 1668 of 
his book, entitled: ''An Essay towards a Real Char- 
acter and a Philosophical Language." Tlie diction- 
ary in it is said to have been by all odds the best 

to each person by a practical scientific language. 

The past attempts to create a universal language 
manifest the need of it. Alexander dreamed of it. 
Descartes and Leibnitz pondered over the problem. 
At the present time many inventors are eagerly 
searching for its solution. 

All suggestions for solving it fall into two classes. 
One of these is to adopt universally some one of the 
already existing languages, ancient or modern. The 
other is to create a new language. 

Force of circumstances compelled at least a partial 
trial of the adoption plan. The Roman Empire ruled 
the known world, and the policy of Rome w^as to sub- 
stitute Latin everywhere for the vernacular of the 
subjugated tribes. That made Latin for centuries 
after the downfall of the Roman Empire the world 
language of scholarship. Afterwards French in 
large measure took its place, elfepecially as the lan- 
guage of the courts, of diplomacy and of polite 

Lately the national languages have all been push- 
ing their claims. Albania is strenuously insisting 
on the use of its own tongue. Lecturers and writers 
are recounting in glowing terms the beauties and ex- 
cellencies of Irish. The Welshman thinks he has one 
of the finest languages on earth. We cannot dispute 
him without learning Welsh, and then perhaps we 
would agree with him. So it goes all over the world. 


— 10 — 

wir sachlich verwandte Be^riflFs-gruppen in klanglich 
verwandte WOrtergruppen, so vollenden wir das an- 
gefangene Werk Schle.yers. Die leichte Erlernbar- 
keit der Vokabeln wird der leichte Erlernbarkeit der 
Gi'ammatik entsprechen: das Problem der Welt- 
sprache ist gel5st." 

"If we extend to the dictionary the system approved 
of in the grammar, if we grouj) together the ideas 
of the lexicon, if we clothe similar ideas in words of 
similar sound, we complete the work that Schleyer 
began. Easy acquisition of w^ords will correspond to 
easy acquisition of grammar. The problem of the 
world language is solved." 

This is precisely the plan on which Ro is working. 

Esperanto follows Volapi'ik in its method of con- 
struction. They go to the Latin or other national 
languages for their root words. In some of Schley- 
er's groups of words, as in his pronouns for instance, 
he is entirely a priori. In the mutilation of root 
words he imitates Procrustes more than does Zamen- 
hof . But in both languages the grammatical inflec- 
tions, the ])refixes and suflixes, are a priori. Thi.s 
a priori element is the source of their attractiveness 
and power. The other modern artificial languages. 
Idiom Neutral, Interlingua, Ido and the like are sim- 
ilarly constructed. 

Ro differs radically from them all in that it is 
wholly o. prioriy in vocabulary as well as in grammar. 

- 4 

— 11 — 

The vocabulary of a language is immeasurably more 
difficult than its grammar. The reconstruction of the 
word-list is therefore of prime importance. But this 
cannot be accomplished except by the analysis and 
classification of ideas. This is essential, imperatively 
necessary to the formation of a true world language. 
But the undertaking is extremely difficult. Bishop 
Wil kins, backed by the Royal Society of London, 
tried it and failed. If any critics find shortcomings 
in Ko, as well they mky, we simply remind them 
that the field is still open. Let them go ahead and 
show how it ought to be done. That some one will 
succeed is certain, for the future language of the 
world will be built on the a priori plan. 

But to create this language is beyond the power of 
any one man. Bishop Wilkins said that it was the 
work of a college and an age rather than of a single 
individual. The flash of suggestion that unexpected- 
ly brought the subject to my own mind, nine years 
ago, w^as so vivid, and mapped out the whole field so 
clearly, as a flash of lightning on a dark night irra- 
diates a landscape, that I imagined it would be pos- 
sible to reproduce the vision in a few days or a few 
weeks at the most. During the nine years since that 
time my mind has been working almost incessantly 
on the problem. Sympathizers have been few. 
Poverty distressed me. More than once I became 
discouraged, and tried to lay down the undertaking 


— 12 — 

, for something that would afford at least the necessa- 
ries of life. But the work had hold of me, and would 
not let go. Often in my dreams or in the w^aking 
hours of the night, columns of words chased each 
other tumultuously thro my brain, and banished the 
possibility of sleep, until for relief I was compelled 
to get up, turn on the light, and commit to paper 
the rampant vocables. 

The task is not yet finished. But it will finish me 
unless I get help. This little book is my appeal to 
the world. Skeptics and scoffers I jexpect to meet. 
I have met them in rows and am case-hardened to 
their attacks. I have seen the vision too clearly to 
let a few blind men convince me that there are no 
colors in the rainbow and no stars in the sky. But 
to photograph and reproduce those colors is another 
matter. The dictionary prospectus already quoted 
from states that the enormous task of creating the 
new dictionary required several years, and that hun- 
dreds of specialists of national and international rep- 
utation cooperated in its making. All this merely 
to gather and set down words already coined! What 
then must the undertaking be to create the words be- 
fore they are set down, and not simply to give the 
definition of words furnished by others, but first to 
get the definition in mind, and then to create the 
word to fit the definition? Still more. Each word 
must be so framed as not merely to fit its idea stand- 

— 13 — 

ing alone, but the words must be so related to each 
other that they will not cross lines and intrude into 
different departments and furnish homonyms, words 
of the same sound but different significations, such 
as in English right, wright, rite and write, or words 
of v^arious meanings as stock, base, bill and many 
others, or synonytfis, words of different sound and 
different spelling but identical in signification. No 
one who tries it will find it easy. But to make the 
language perfect it must be done. 

Friends have offered the suggestion that I let men 
who have plenty of money and plenty of time work 
out the language problem. I am surely not standing 
in their way, nor trying to hinder them. Why do 
they not carry out the work? There are .multimil- 
lionaires in the United States who can hire clerks by 
the regiment. Why do they not set men to snatch 
the oratorical crown from the brow of Demosthenes? 
Why not employ painters who can make the master- 
pieces of Raphael look like daubs? Why not engage 
operators to outwizard Edison in handling electricity? 
Why ? Because they cannot. Neither can they pick 
up at random stenographers or typewriters who will 
dash off to order a new language, complete in all de- 
tails, and superior to English, or German, or French, 
or Spanish, or Russian, or Italian. 

But the world language is coming. That means 
that somebody must make it. 



— 14 — 

This little book is an attempt to solve the problem. 
If unbought and unread it will accomplish nothingr. 
But if it finds purchasers and readers, who will talk 
about it, and bring it to the notice of others, it will 
at least be one of the finger-boards pointing the way 
to the goal. Besides it will enable me to continue 
the work of improving the new language. To give 
my time to such work, while trying to earn a livings 
at some other occupation, is impossible. 

Reader, will you help? 

— 15 — 


D O takes no radicals or root- words from the Latin 

* ^ or any other language. Its words are all new, 
based on the analysis of ideas and constructed on the 
a priori principle. The initial letter or syllable con- 
trols the word. The remaining letters subdivide or 
particularize, in accordance with . the ' principle of 
scientific classification. The initial syllable must 
never change in signification. This is a fundamental 


D O uses the 26 letters of the Latin or English al- 

* ^ phabet, in their established order. The five 
vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in German or 
Italian, or as in the English words man, mar; then, 
they; pick, pique; son, sown; full, truth. Ay is the 
German ai or ei; or the English ay, eye or /. Aw is 
like ow in owl; or au in German haus. C is English 
shj French cA, or German sc/i. J is like zh or French 
j; q like ng in singing. The letters b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, 
m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z have their usual English 
sounds. W and y are always consonants. G is al- 
ways hard as in go, get. Dh is like English th in 
the, this; th like th in thin; dj like English j, and wh 
or hw like wh in when. There are no silent letters, 
and no artificial accents. 


\' - " '?■ ■ * .*•. ■■■■ .' 


ab — /, me, je, ich, mick ■ 
aibz — we, us, nous, wir, uns 
abaq — myself. m<»i-m§me 
ac — lAou, you, tu, du, dich 
ad — he, him, il, er, ihn 
td — she, elh, sie 
ag — it, thing, chose, ea 
aj — any, quehjue, irgend Ein 
ok— each, chague, jeder 
Bl—this, ce-d, dieser 
alz — these, ces-ci, diese 
am— (ftaf, ce-MLJener 
amx~~those, ces-li jene 
an— no, nul, keiner 
ap— o, an, un, einer 
aq— sflTKC, tn&me, derselbe 
ar — person, on, Tnan 
as — such, lei, solcher 
at — ike, le, la, der, das 
av — which, quel, welcher 
avar — who, qui, wer 
aw? — what? quelf was? 
AVta:?—whof quit werf 
ax — other, autre, anderer 
ay — some, quelque, etwas 
az — every, chaque, jeder 

ajar — anybody 

ajag — anything 

anag — nothing, nichts 

anar — nobody, niemand 

akax — each other, eindnder 

apaz — another 

ayag — somdhing, etwas 

ayar — somebody, jemand 

azag — everything 

azar — everybody, jederman 

Da — Place 

abda — my place 
a j da — anywhere 
alda— ftere 
amda — there 
anda — nowhere 
aqda— together 
avda — where 
awda? — where? 
axda— elsewhere 
Ryda.- somewhere 
az d a — everywh ere 

Fa — Manner 

abfa — my way 
acfa — your way 
ajfa — anyhow 

17 — 

alfa — so, this way 
amfa — thus, that way 
anfa — no way 
aqfa— similarly 
awfa? — how? 
axf a— otherwise 
ayf a —somehow 
azfa — every way 

Ka — Cause 

ajka— /or any reason 
alka — this reason 
anka — without cause 
avka — why 
awka? — why? 
ayka — for some reason 
azka — for every reason 

Ta — Time 

ahta—my time 
ajta — any time 
alt a — noiy, this time 
ennts.— that time 
anta — never 
aqta — .same time 
awta? — when? 
ayta — sometime 
azta —always 

Ba — Matter 

baba— e^/ier 0/ space 

bac — hydrogen 
baced — water 
bad — hydro-carbon 
baclab — methane 
baclam — marsh gas 
bade — ethane 
baded — aldehyde 
badek — alcohol 
badem — acetic acid 
bader — ether 
badib — benzine 
badif — naphtha 
badig — gasolene 
badir — kerosene 
badop — paraffine 

had— oxygen 
badag — air 

baf — halogen group 
bafab — bromine 
bafac — chlorine 
baf ad — iodine 
bafaf — fluorine 
bag — nitrogen 
bajhe — helium 



bajae — neon 
bajra — argon 

baksu sulphur 
bakse — selenium 
bakte — tellurium 
bal — carbon 
balac— cooi 
balad —dia mond 
balag — graph He 

bale — carho-hydmte 
balceg — glucose 
balci— £fti?n 
haXco^ starch 

bam— 8t/jcon 
batne — silica 
bameb — quartz 
bamec— ci(rine 
bamef— /a/se topaz 
bamer — roue quartz 
htLineE- -smoky quartz 
bamic — carneHan 

bamig — agate 
bamil— cAn/rerfonj/ 
bamip — chrysoprase 
bamir — li ornstone 
bami s — sardonyx 
bamit —touchstone 
bamlx— onj/a: 
banbi — binmulh 
Imnco^ cot umbium 
'banfo—ph osphoms 
ban as— arsenic 
b ansi — on timony 
banta — tantalum 
hanva.— vanadium, 
bap — alkali metal 
b ap ce — caesium 
hapii— lithium 
hapiix^rub idium 
bapso — .lodium 
bapto — potassium 

baq — ctlli-ali earth metal 
baqba — barium 
baqca — calduiii 
baqra — radium 
hansa— strontium 

bare— cadmium 
b arg — gliicinum 
b arm — mercury 
'bara— magnesium 
liask — copper 
basp — silver 
bast — gold 
bat — earth metal 
batal ^alumin um 
bavac ^chromium 
b a vmo — molybden u t> 
bavru — uranium 
bawc — cobalt 
bawf — iron 
bawm— man^an^se 
bawn — nickel 
bazab — boron 
baxati^ litajiium 
baxatho — thorium 
baxazi — 2 irconium 

bsy g — ger ma nium 
bayp — (cad 
bays —tin 

haziu— ruthenium 

bazap — pa Uadium, 
b azos — osmium 
bazapt — platinum 

Be — Quality or form 
of matter 

beb — gas 
bebi — vaporize 
heho— evaporated 
bebu — volatile 
hec— bubble 
gab ec ^ effervescence 
becib- — boil ^ 
becaf— /worn 
becal — lather 
bed — liquid 
gabed —liquidity 
hedi— liquefy 
hedol— melted 
bef — pidp 

befaj— jeHy 
beg — solid 
gaheg— solidity 

b ego — solidified 
bej — powder 
gabej —pulverulence 
he}i— pulverize 
hejvk— friable 
bel — light 
gabel— levity 
belif — rarefy 
gab elif —rarefactio n 
bem heavy 
gahem— gravity 
be mif —condense 

hep— elastic 
gabep— elasticity 

beq — tough 
gab e q_—te nacity 
beqi -toughen 

her— brittle 
berik -break 
berok — broken 
hemk- -fragile 

gabes— /r(WiV)« 
besi — rub 
b e sni — lubricate 
bei — texture 

Bi— Relating to the 

sky, weather, as= 


bib — sky 

bibac— (Ae heavens 
bical- -cUiiialf 
bid— air in motion 
bidab — zephyr 
bidac- - breeze 
bidaf — wind 
\)\Aa\.- -cyclone 
hit— cloudy weather 
hifkn— cloud 
bifkac — cirrus 
bifkad — Cumulus 
bifkaf — stratus 
bifkal — nimbus 
big — rainy weather 
bigba — mist 

higca— dripping 

bigda — drizzle 

bigla- rain 

bigma — pour 

bignat — shower 

bija — storm 

bika — changeable weather 

bil — ice 

bilac- glacier 

hilad— hail 

bilaf— ^/rorf 

bUak— snflic 

bimak — lightning 
bimani thunder 
bimas— raindoiP 
h'andX— halo 

bip — weather protector 
hipad^ umbrella 
hipaS— parasol 

Biqkad — Arctic drde 
Biqkaf- Tropic of Cancer 
Biqla — Equator 
Biqmaf — Tropic of Capri- 
Biqm&d— Antarctic circle 

biqsa — hlitnde 
b iqta — lo>i gitude 
bir — planet 
Birab Mercury 
Birac — Venus 
Birad— Earth 
Biraf- -.I/acn 
birag- -asteroid 
Biral— Jupiter 
Bira q^ — Uranus 
Birai— jV^ ptune 
bit — moon 
bitac — satellite 
biv — star 

bi va c — constellation 
bivam— zodiac 
bixad — comet 
bixak — meteor ■ 
bixal — nehula 
bizac — universe 

Bo — Property of 
matter * 

bob — matter 
bohi —materialize 

bocad — opaque 
bocaf — ^anslucent 
bocak — transparent 
bocal- -crysUdline 
hoc&m~~Teflecli7ig lighl 
1)ocap — luminous 
bocaq — refracting light 
bocar — lustrous 
bodac — while 
bodal — brown 
t)of — prismatic color 
bofac — red 
bofad — orange 
bofaf — yellow 
bofag — green 
bofal~6iue . 
bof am —indigo 
bofaq — violet 
b of ax — variegated 
bogi — sonorous 
hogo— sound 


bojac — very faint 
hojad— faint 
bojaf —audible 
bojak — loud 
bojal— (/iwnderous 
bok — specific sound 
hok&d— thud 
bokaf — trill 
bokag — grating 
b okak — clattering 
bokal — musical 
^okam.— roaring 
bokaq— n.n^in^ 
bokas- hissing 
ho\~- flavor 
bolac — pungent 
bolad— twang 
bolaf — sweet 
bolak^flci'rf, sour 
bolam — bitter 
bolas — savory 
bom — odor 
bomaf — fragrant 
hoiaak— fetid 

bor— chemical 
botud— combustible 

— 23 

borid — burn 
boraf — solvent 
boruk — explosive 

Bu — Physical Geog- 

bub — the earth 
bubac — the globe 
bube — earth shape 
bubef — spheroid 
bubi — earth motion 
bubif — rotation 
bubik — revolution 
bubo — earth crust 
bubu — earth surface 

buc — body of water 
bucab — ocean 
Bucaban — A ntarctic 
Bucabar^ — Arctic 
Bucabat — A tlantic 
Bucabi — Indian 
Bucabo — Pacific 
bucad — sea 
bucada — sea of Asia 
Bucadac — Caspian Sea 
bucade — sea of Europe 
Bucadem — Mediterranean 

bucaf — gulf 

bucafu — American gulf 

Bucaf nia— Gulf of Mexico 

bucag — bay 

bucal — inlet 

bucam — strait 

bud — land surface 
buda — hemisphere 
Budaf — Eastern hemisphere 
Budak— Western hemisphere 
bude — continent 
Bndem.— Eastern continent 
Buder — Western continent 
Budet- Australian continent 

buf — island 

bufa — Asiatic island 

Buface — Ceylon 

buf e — European island 

Bufesi — Sicily 

bufi — African island 

Bufima — Madagascar 

bufo — Oceanican island 

Buf onze — New Zealand 

bufu — American island 

Bufucu — Cuba 

bug — continental division 


bugab — penirwula 
bugac — isthmus 
Bugacas — Isthmus of Suez 
Bugacup^hthmus of Pan- 

bugad— cape 
Bugadig — Cape of Good 

buj — plain 
bu jap — prairie 

hul- -high land 
bulad— table land 
bulap — promontory 

bum — valley 

bun— desert 
buni—vl/r ic«/i desert 

bup — running water 
hupac— creek 
bupaf— ;/!ood 
bupak — cataract 

buqa— soitrce of stream 
buqad -^spring 

buqaf — /ou ntain 

buqal — well 

buqi — bed of stream 

buqu — mouth of river 

buqud — delta 

Buqudni — deltn of the Nile 

bur- river 
buia — river of Asia 
Buraga — Ganges 
Burajo— Jorrfari 
BuTale- Lena 
Buraya Ynni/I^ie 
bure Evropcan river 
Bureda — Danube 
Burerhi Rhine 
Buierho— Rhone 
Buretha.— Thames 
Burevo — Volga 
buri — African riser 
Buriko — Kongo 
Burini J^'ile 
buru — Amerimn rlver 
Buniam — A mazon 
BuTugra — Rio Grande 
Burumip —Alississippi 
B u rumo — Missour i 
Burusla — St. Lawrence 

hnsR^Axiatic lake 
Bvsah— Baikal 
buse — European lake 
Busege — Lake Geneva 
Busivi — Victmia Nyanza 
Bususu — Lake Superior 
but — mountain 
buta Asiatic mminlain 
Butabim Himalaya 
Buteal— -4ips 
Buteba— BaiAan 
Butep — Pyrenees 
Butiat— A(ias Mia. 
Buturo — Rocky Mts. 

Buv — volcano 

Bu vaf U— Fusiyama 


"Buvoke—Mauna Kea 

Bu-vupo— Popocatepetl 

Buvuchi — Chimborazo 

Ca — Quantity 

cab— maas 
cad^ — degree 
caf — amount 


ceh— minute part 

ced — small piece 

cef^minor, less than half 


eel— more than any other 


cem — major part 


ces — nearly all 

cih— equal cob — unequal 
cid — muck cod— little 
cU~-very muck cof -very little 
cik — more cok—less 
cH-muck more col-^much kss 
cist — mmt cost — least 
cuho— unified 
cudi— constituting 
c^do^made up of 
cufa- — complete 
c uf o — corn pleted 
cuko — added 
c\i\o— joined 

cuq — sim-ple 
euro — compounded 

deb —length 
debab- point 
■debac- -very short 
debaf — of mid length 
debak — long 
debal — very long 
deb ar — endless 

4ec^ breadth 
decab- -iine 
decac — threadlike 
decaf — medium broad 
decak— 6roa</ 
de cal — world-w ide 

ded— thickness 
dedab — plane 
dedac — sheet 
dedai — not thick 
dedak — thick 
dedal— very thick 
dedar — rolund 

defab -Jlat 
defac — very low 
defad— low 
defei— middle high 
defak- high 
defar — toplesa 

deg — depth 
d egab — su perfida t 
degac — very shallow 
degad — shallow 
degaf — not deep 
degak— deep 
degal — riT!/ deep 
degar- -bottomless 

del — size 

de lab — infinitesm a I 
delac — minute 
delaf — midsized 
delal— Awfle 
delar— infinite 

dem —interval 
demab — contiguous 

demac — very near 
demad — near 
demaf — mid distance 
demal — remote 
d emar — measureless 

dep— cardinal point 
Depab— .V*ir(J( 
Depad East 
Depak- South 
Depar — West 

dera-h-plumb, straight dawn 
derac — precipitous 
derad — sinking, slope down 
deraf — horizontal, level 
derak— risinj;, slope up 
deral — sleep 
derar — vertical 

des — from the cenier 
desah^inynosl, center 
desac — inner, far in 
desad — in, interior 
desaf — on the line 
desak — out, exterior 

desal — order, far out 
desar — utrnost 
dex — succession 
dsxab— foremost, first 
dexad— /i>iT 
dexaf — mi/Idle 
dexak — hind 
dexal — hinder 
dexar — hindmost, last 

Di — Dress 

dif — headdress 
difec— cap 
dm— hat 
difid — katmaker 
dif ol — millinery 
difoli — mi7/i»ier 
difot — bonnet 
dij — neckwear 
dijal — collar 
dikah— doth 
diiiabi— weaver 
dikeb — clothing 
dikebi — tailor 
diker — fro users 
dikev— Des( 



- 28- 

dikob — bttUon 
dila — dressgoods 
diled- - dress 
diledi — dressmaker 
dslek— skirl 
dipab — yam 
dipabi — spin ner 
dipeci —knitter 
diqa -underwear 
disa — dress ornament 
disal — lace 
ditar— leather 
ditRTi— tanner 
dited— shoemaker 
ditok — stocking 

Do — Furniture 

docab — chair 
d cat i^chaimiaker 
doce — part of chair 
docek — back 
doces — seal 

dodab— (wrf 
dode — part of bed 
dode s — bedstead 
dodi — bed clothing 
dodim — ma ttrens 
dodip -pillow 
dodiq -'luiU 
dodis — sheet 

dofab — Idble 

dofac — extension table 

dofe—parl of table 

dofe\^fable leg 
; dofi —table cutlery 
\ doM—fork 
j dofik —knife 
I dofip — spoon 

dofo-- dish 
! dofoc — Clip 

dofod— sawcer 
idofol— p?«(t 

dofuc- -lalilecloth 

dofun- - napkin 

doga — crockery 

dolab — stove 
dolabi— stove maker 
', dolat— Tanye 

dole— par( of stove 
doleg-— ffrote 
doli — stove fittings 
dolife— fceHte 
dolip— pot 
doUs— skillet 
dolu— /wci 
d o m a— refrigerator 

dopRC— carpel 
dop aci — carpelma ker 
dopag— rwg 
dopec — curtain 
dopid— rfrapery 

Dra — Region of the 

DRAD — Geographical grand 

Drada— i4s(a 
D rad a af — Afghanistan 
Dradaar — Arabia 
D rad ain— 2 n rf t a 
Dr&daja — Japan 
Dradako — Korea 

Dradap — Persia 
Dradasib— Sifeen'a 
Dradatu — Turkey 
D rad e — Europe 
Sradea .4MS(no 
Dradebel— Be/ff(wm 
Dradebri — Britain 
Dradebu — Bulgaria 
Dradeden — Denmark 
Dradefra France 
Dradege — Germany 
Dradegre— Greece 
Dradeit —Italy 
Dradene — Netherlands 
Dradeao — Norway 
'Dndepo— Portugal 
D rad erom — Rouinania 
Dradese — Sertia 
Dradespa —Spain 
D rad e s w e — Sweden 
J)Tadesvi— Switzerland 
Tiradi— Africa 
D radia b — Ah yssin ia 
Dra dial Algeria 

— 30 — 

Dradiko — Kongo 
Dradimo — Morocco 
Dradiso — Soudan 
Draditri— Tripoli 

Drado — Oceanica 
Dradoa — Australia 

Dradu — A merica 
Draduar — Argentina 
Dradubra — Brazil 

Dradubo — Bolivia 
Draduca — Canada 
Draduchi — Chile 
Draducol — Columbia 
Draduo — Ecuador 
Dradumex — Mexico 
Dradupar — Paraguay 
Draduper — Peru 
Dradusa — U, S. A. 
Draduru — Uruguay 

By dropping the initial D we get the word denot- 
ing the inhabitant or citizen. 

Ac we Radebri? — Are you a Briton? 

Ne, ab el Radusa. — No, I am a citizen of the United 
States, » 

Ac el ib aw dra? — What part of the earth are you 

Gadu — Architecture 

dub — dwelling 
dubab — hut 
dubad — hovel 
dubaf— fen^ 
dubag — cottage 
dubal — house 

dubam — residence 
dubar — mansion 
dubas — palace 

due — hov^e group 
Ancab— hamlet 
ducad — village 
ducaf — town 

ducak — dty 
ducal — capital 
ducam — metropolis 

dud — part of house 
dudab— /oundot ion 
dudac — wall 
dudak — eaves 
dudal — cupola 
dude — entrance 
dudec^ — portal 
dudef— door 
dude]— hall 
dudep- — porch 
dudes — sta irway 
dadi— interior 
dudib — room 
dudic — chamber 
dudif — parlor 
dudik— kitchen 
dudil — living room 
dudim — bed room 
dadip— cellar 

-31 — 

dudo — part of room 
dudof — floor 
dudok— corner 
dudol — wall 
dud om— ■ ceiling 
duf — part of city 
dufab — alley 
dufac — street 
duf ad — avenue 
dufaf— iow?ei'nrrf 
dufak — square 
dul— government building 
dulab — town hail 
dulAC— court house 
dxHai— custom house 
dulas — stale house 
diUav — capital 

dum — militwrg 
d umab— barracks 
dumac — diadel 

dumaf— /ori 
dumak — castle 

dur — school house 
durab — Id ndergarlen 
durac — ■\Kxi*>n.Tvj wlwit^ 

— 32 

duritk — academy 
dural — college 
dtirav— university 

dus — religious 
dnssic— church 

dusad — cathedral 
dusag — synagogue 
dusap — pagoda 
dusat — temple 

E — Verb of aflfirmation 

Language is composed not of words but of sen- 
tences. Sentences are of three kinds, those that af- 
firm, those that deny, and those that interrogate. 

In Ro the initial e denotes the verb. The prefix n 
denotes the negative verb, and the w tlie interroga- 
tive verb. If needed for clearness or emphasis the 
initial y indicates the affirmative or emphatic verb. 

Signs of mood and tense are as follows: 

eb — infinitive mood 
ec — imperative mood 
ed — pluperfect tense 
ef — perfect tense 
ek — imperfect tense 
el — present tense 

em — future tense 
ep — participle 
epk — past participle 
epl — present participle 
epia— future participle 
et— future perfect tense 

The vowel added to these syllables denotes the 
kind of verb. An a denotes the neuter verb; an e 
the verb of intransitive action; an i the transitive 
verb; an o the passive voice, ax\d a u V\\^ \>Q\fewM\«\ 

motid or auxiliary verb. 
Thus we have: 

eba — to be 
neba — not to be 
ebe — tu become 
ebi — to cause 
eho — to be made 
ebu — to be possible 
eca!— 6c.' 
ece ! — become! 
eda — had been 
ede—had become 
edi — had done 
edo— had been done 
efa— has been 
eka — was, were 
ela — is, am, are 
ele~ becomes 
ema — will be 
eme — will become 
nemi — wiU not render 
epka — having been 
epma— abowi to be 
epke — having become 
eplo — being acted on 
epmi — about to do 

eUi-—will have been 
neti—will not have done 
ebda^io have been 

The letters q, r, s ami v 
added U> tlie e constitute 
entire sentences. Thus: 
eq— is equal to, is as good as 
neq — is not equal to, is not 
the equivalent of, cannot 
accomplish the thing de- 
A weq B?— /s A equal to Bf 
Ag er -It is true 
Ag ner — /( is not true 
Ag wer? — Is it true? 

Es denotes prosperity. 
Ag vres?—How is itf 
Ag nes^ — It is not good 
Ac -vtsi^Are you prosper- 
Ab yes — / am doing finely 

The letter v denotes vo- 
I Jitton. 

\Mvrev?— Will this Ml the 
j bill? 

In the auxiliary verbs k added to the a signifies 
ability; 1 permission or contingency; ta necessity; s 
obligation; and v willingness or tendency. The first 
consonant denotes tense. 

Thus we have: 
eluk — can 
ekuk — could 
ekid — might 
elum — must 
'ekus — should 
ekuT — would 
eduk — coidd have 
eluk— can have 
edui — might have 
ef ul — may have 
edus — should have 
eduv — would have 

To these an added a, e, 
i, o, or u, gives the same 
signification aa in the sec- 
ond syllable of the pri- 
mary verb or indicative 
mood. Thus we have: 

eluka — can be 
neluka — cannot be 

ekuke — could become 
eluli — may do 
etoHo— might be done 
eluma— mus( be 
ekusa — should be 
ekuvu — would be possible 
neinsvu-- would not be pos- 
Ag wekuvu? — Would it be 

eduka — could have been 
nefuka — cannot have been 
edule— might have become 
neduli — might not have done 
efulo — may have been done 
neduso — should not have 

been done 
Ag weduvo? — Would it have 

been donef 
Ab weluU al? — May I do 

Ac wekuvi am? — Would 
you do that? 

Ad nedusi ag. — He ought 
not to have doiu it. 

P — Form 

FA — adverb of manner 
FI — adverb denoting right 

or proper mannttr 
FO-adverb denoting wrong 

or unbecoming m»nner. 

Fu — Geometrical 

fubi — pointer 
fubo — poitU 
fuco — li7te 
fudoc — angle 
fudod — triangle 
f tidof — quadrilat&'a I 
fudog — pentagon 
iuioi.— hexagon 
fudom — heptago n 
fudoq- — octagon 
fufo — right angle 
fufof — square 
fago — spatial angle 
fugof — pri&m 
tngro— Platonic solid 

fugrof — tetrahedron 

iugiog— pentahedron 

f ugrozec— icosahedron 

fujo — cube 

fulo— curve 

folic— archer 

inioc—boip. arch 

iulof^ parabola 

iulok^ hyperbola 

iumi — circter 

iumo^ circle 

funob — cone 

f unod — cylinder 

iupid — curler 



fupol — tendril 

fupol — wave 
j fupox — helix 

fuqo^ — rotundity 

f uro — sphere 
I fuso — convexity 
I f uto — concavity 

The Metric System 
j Geb — Length Measure 
I gebab — millimeter 
, gebac — centimeter 

gebad — decimeter 
gebaf — meter 
gebag— (ifA-o )neler 
gebal — h ektom eter 
gebam kilomeler 
gebap — myriameter 
gebrac— incfi 
■ gebrad -Joot 
gebraf — yard 
gebrag— rod 
gebral— furlong 
gebram — mile 
gebraq- — Jeagve 

Gee — Surface Measure 

gecaf- (ire 
gecal — hectare 
gecraj— acre 

Ged — Volume Measure 
gedab — milliUter 
gedac — centiliter 
ged&d— deciliter 
gedaf — liter 
gedag- -dekiilitcr 
gedal— hectoliter 
gedam- kihliter, Mere 

gedrad — gill 

gedrag— fj-iiQ?-( 

Gef — Weit^ht Measure 

: getab —milligram 
I gefac — centigram 
j gef ad — decigram 

gefaf — gram 

gefag — dekagram 
; gefal — hectogrom 
I gefam — kilogram 
I gefaq — myriagram 

gefar- -quintal 


gefraf — grain 

gefiag-^peiiii i/veiyht 

gefral — uimce 

gef ram — pound 

gefraq — stone 

gefray — ton 

' Geij — Anifle Measure 

[ gegah— second of arc 


gegad- -degree 
Igegaf sign 

— 37 — 

gegSLg— angle of 45 ° 
gegal — sextant 
gegam — quadrant 
gegaq — semicircle 
gegar — circle 

Gcr — Price Measure 

gerb — British money 
gerba — farthing 
gerbe — penny 
gerbi — shilling 

gerbo — pound sterling 

gerd — U. S, money 
gerda — mill 
gerde — cent 
gerdi — dime 
gerdo — dollar 
gerdu — eagle 

gerf — French money 
gerg — German money 

Ec ro id ab gebof iv ag. — Tell me the length of it in 

Ec gefim ag. — Weigh it in kilograms. 

Aw za gecraj ela il agf — How many acres are there 
in itf 

II ap gegar el 360 gegadz. — In a circle are 360 de- 

At ger iv Ru Ro el* zeg gerdez ur zac gerbiz. — 

The price ofRu Ro is 50 cents or two shillings. 

G — Quality 

GA — ^^abstract noun of quality 
GI — adjective denoting* ri^lit or proper quality 
GO — adjective denoting wrong or improper quality 
GU — condition 

— 38 — 

gib — long 



gic — broad 



gid — large 



gif heavy 



gig — right 



gij high 



gik — wide 



gil — remote 



gim — hot 


— cold 

gin— cfeep 



gip— intense 



giq — similar 



gir^ dear 






git — lasting 



giv — t^e/itZ 



gix — aright 



giy fl'ood 



giz — many 



geb — length 
gee — breadth 
ged- -volume 
gef — weight 
geg— angle 
gej — height 
gek — interval 
gel — distance 
gem— temperature 
gen — depth 
gep — energy 
geq — resemblance 
ger — price 
ges — contents 
get — duration 
gev — tJaZi^ 
gex — direction 
gey — quality 
gez — number 

H— Possessive Rela- 1 J^'-^^'J . 

nalb — lodge m' 

tions I halbir — lodger 

hsL—have half — rent 

hac — possess halfir — render 
had — hold 
haf — occupy 
hag — participate in 

hals — Zease 
halsir — lessee 
ham — regain 

— 39 — 

haq — own 
haqir — owner 
hazik — monopolize 
hazir — monopolist 

he — get 
hec — acquire 
hed — receive 
hef— find 
heg — accept 
hek — take 
hel — steal 
helir — <Ate/ 
hem — grab 
hen — mn 
her — earn 
t hes — borrow 
het — inherit 
hev — te/2/ 
hex— irode /or 

hi — want 

hie — Zon^ /or 
hid — need 
him — hunger for 
his — desire 
hiv — covet 
hix — seek 

ho — gft^e 
hoc — yield 
hod — cede 
hof — bestow 
hok — deliver 
hoi — s/i'p to 
hom — pay to 
hos — lend 
hot— bequeath 
hov — sell 
hox — <rade to 

hu — lose 
hue— forfeit 
hud — relinquish 
huf — drop 

Eb ho el giy ox eb he. — To give is better than to 
Ec hix ud acz em hef. — Seek and ye shall find. 
Awar ek hel ivab difit? — Who stole my hat? 

Ac wem hos idab ap gerdo?— Will you lend me a 

— 40 — 


a jurwuru 

b from 

ua uachCLLura 

ob — 6acA: 

c — through 

oc — around 

d to 

od— short of 

dh — at 

odh — rio< a< 

dj — toward 

ody- away from 

f — on 


ig oi?er 

og -under 

J ^P 

oj — rfoi^n 

.k — before 

ok — a/<er 

1 — into 

ol — out of 

Lm — aiong 

om — across 

.n — in 

on — oi/< 

ip 6?/ means of 

op — despite 

.q — h*A:6 

oq-- unlike 

ir — ivith 

or — without 

iS— for 

OS - against 

it — about 

ot — /ar /ro/??. 

IV— o/ 

ov — not of 

ix between 

ox — beyond 

iz — among 

oz — except 

The preposition ith, borrowed from the Hebrew 
Itmtrua^e, may l)e used in inverted sentences as the 
si|fn of the direct object or accu.sative cai^ie. Iv, of, 
is the sicfn of the possessive case. Oh may be used 
as in Euiilish to indicate the vocative case. 

J — Relation, Order 

jaba — relative 
ga j ab —relation 
jada — m-utual 
ga j ad — recipTocity 
jafa — similar 
ga j af — similarity 
aka — identical 
gajak — identity 
Jala — opposite 
gajal — CO ntrariety 
j ama^differenl 
ga j am — differ en ce 
JBra— agreeing 
ga j ai—agreeme nt 
je— beginning 
jed — open 
jel — biid 
ji — middle 
jo — CJirf 
jod— close 
jof — finish 
jnbcL— orderly 
j ubi — arranging 

gajubi — arrangement 
juda — prior 
eb juf— to follow 
gajuk — continuity 
uka — am linumis 
jukak — rank 
jukaj — line 
jukar — row 
jukat — term 
gajvl— assemblage 
eb juli — to gather 
ga j um — cJispersion 
eb jurai to scatter 
juq — specially 
jur — class 
ga ju s — regularity 

Verbs of Force 

kab — bring 
kae— pusA 
kad — drive 
kaf — throw 
kag — shoee 
kaj— jerfc 
kal— AoM 
kam — s(nle 

kap— piiH 
kar— carry 
bas — send 
kav — bend 
Verbs of Locomotion 

keb — Tttove 
kec — travel 
ked — sail 
keg — lag _ 
kej —sujim 
kel— ^run 
kem — recoil 
bep — come 
ker — leap 
bet— 90 
bev— (wm 

Verbs of Cause 

kib — create 
kic — increase 
bid — put, phce 
bif — sAope, form 
kig — wiflAe be/icr 
kij— join 
kik — impel 
jfcy — ffuUiPoie 

kim — assist 
kip — -produce 
kir — show, reveid 
kis — excite, rouse 
kit — receive 
kiv — persuade 
kiz — sAare 
kiz — multiply 

Verbs of Deprivation 

bob — annihilate 
koc — decrease 
kod — displace 
kof — deface 
kog — mate iiwrse 
bo j— disjoin 
bob — puU back 
ko\—tear, ruin 
bom — oppose 
bop — destroy 
bor — ftide, cow. 
kos—guiet, soothe 
bot — e2;pei, eject 
bov — dissuade 
box — monopol ize 
boy — denj/ 
boz — decimate 


— 43 

Verbs of Result 

kub — results from 
kac-follows as a consequence 

fakuc — consequerdly 

kur — infers 

fakur — inferentially 

L — Life, Leben 

The initial "1" is from the English "life" and the 
German "leben." From this come: 

lib — life 
lie — health 
lid — strength 
lif — refreshment 
lik— alertness 
lim — wakefulness 

lob — death 
loc— disease 
lod — weakness 
lof — weariness 
lok — languor 
lorn — sleep 
lor — swoon 
lov — rest 

]iv- activity 
Both as written or printed characters, or as sounds 

of the voice, the "i" and the "o" are contrasted and 
easily distinguishable from each other. We can 
now form words such as: 

eb liba — to be alive 
eb libe — to germinate 
eb libi — to vivify 
eb loba — to be dead 
eb lobe — to die 
eb' lobi — to kill 

eb lobim — to slaughter 
eb lobis — to murder 
eb lobiv — to execute 
eb lobiz — to massacre 
eb lobo — to be killed 
eb lobu — to be mortal 

— 44 — 

plobi — cause of death 

eb lica — to be well 
eb lice — to get well 
eb lici — to make well 

eb lico — to be made well 
eb lieu — to be curable 
plici — medicine 
daplici— drug store 
arplici — druggist 
arlici — physician 
dai]ici— doctor^ s office 
dalici — sanitarium 

arlica — well person 
arlice — convalescent 
garlice — convalescence 
eb licedin— <o get rid of a 

eb loca — to be sick 
eb loce — to get sick 
eb loci — to make sick 
I ploci — cause of sickness 
eb locibmu — to infect with 

the mumps 
eb locedin — to contract a 


Ac we lica? — Are you well? 

Ab el lica alitaf^ ub ab ek loca aletaf. — / am well 
today, but I was sick yesterday. 

Awar ek ivac lici? — Who was your physician? 

Ivab afrap ekho idab at plici av eki ab lice. — My 
mother gave to me the medicine that caused me to recover, 

lb am ab em ri tibal av ebi. — From that I shall know 
hereafter what to do, 

Ivac adrap we lica? — Is your father well? 

Ye, ad el lica. — Yes, he is well. 

eb lida — to be strong 
eb lide — to get strong 
eb lidi --^0 strengthen 

eb lifo — to be refreshed 
eb lofi — to make tired 
eb lima — to be awake 

eb loma-— io be asleep 
eb lome—to fall asleep 
eb lomi — to put to sleep 
eb lora— to be unconscious 
eb lova — to be at rest 

Uf abz lofi ac, abz em 
ro, Lica ! — // we weary you, 
we will say, FaTewell! 

Diseases, Maladies, 

loc — disease 
loc ab — infectious 
locabtyo — typhoid fever 
locabtyii — typhus fever 
locabsma — ^-wallpuj- 
locabcbi —chicken pox 
locabmes — jneasles 
locabmen- ninUiigilin 
locabmu — mumps 
locabska — scarUt fever 
locabhn-^whoopiim cough 
locabin — influenza 
^ocaber — erysipelas 
locabcho— cholera 
locabcro— croup 
locabdi — diphtheria 

locabpla — plague 
locabdys — dysintery 
locabag — ague 
lo cabby d hydrophobia 
locabte — Iflanus 
locah^a— glanders 
locabye — ydbnc fever 

locac — constitutional disease 
locacni — rheumatism 
locaclu — lumbago 
locacgo — yout 
locacdi — diabetes 
locacsku — xcun-y 
locacob — obesitu 

locad — alimentary system 

locadam- numtk disease 

locadaq — ■ipiin-'^!/ 

locadus- -'•lomack disease 
; locaddys— dyspepsia 
\ loctidin.— indigestion 
! locadchof-c/w/t'7-(/ infantum 
I locadli^/i»er disease 

\ locaf — respiratory disease 

locafbro — hronchitis 
XozaiBs— -asthma 
locaf tu— lube-Tculosis 
loc afpn e— pneumonia 
locaf pie — pleurisy 
locag — circulatory disease 
locaghe — heart disease 
ioca-gper^ p^icarditis 
locagart — arteriosclerosis 

locaj- — blood and gland dis 




[ac — cretinism 

locak — kidney disease 
locakbri — Bright' s disease 
locakur — uremia 

local — brain or nerve disease 
localhyd — hydrocephalus 
localcho — St. Vitiis' dance 
localep — epilepsy 
localnef— /a«'«i neuralgia 
localhy s — hysteria 
locals e — sea sickness 

locaibyp^ky pnchondriasis 
localsta — s(affiwim7iff 
localno — nostalgia 
localim — imbecility 
localid — idiocy 
lo calin — insanity 
loca Id e — delirium 
localdtp —dipsomartia 
localma— manwi 
localpar— paranoia 
localkle — lileplomania 
localpre— poreais 
localner — nervousness 
localpal— poralj/m 
localsi — sciatica 
localatax — locomotor ataxia 

locam— parasitic o 

locan — nose or throat disease 
locano— ozena 

loc anpo — polypus 
locanlar— laryngitis 

locap^ear disease 
locapad— deafness 
locap ota — otalgia 
iocaq— ei/e i. 

locaqab-^b/ mrfiiess 
locaqop — ophthalmia 
_ loca.qcon^conjuncim!is 
locaqle — leucoma 
locaqgla — g lauco wm 
locaqca — cat arad 
locaqstra strabismus 

locar — skin disease 
locarco— cor;i 
locarec' — eczRvia 
locaritc —itcA 
locarlep— leprosy 
locarlu— (up«s 
locaiin — ringworm 
locarwa — wart 

locaw — genito-urinary dis~ 

locawcys — cyditis 
locawcal — calculus 
locawgo — go njjrrhea 
locawstri — strict ure 
locawsjrp — syphilis 

Leb— Plant 

lebe — thallus 
l€bi — b-ush 
lebo — shrub 
lee — root 
led — stem 
lede — blade 
led! — shoot 
ledo — rod 
ledu — trunk 
let— leaf 
lema— blossom 
leniec^ sepal 
lemek —calyx 
lemep- — petal 
lemer — corolla 
lemi — stamen 
lemin — anther 
lemtp — -pollen 
lemo — pistil 
lemod — ovary 
lemof —style 
lemol — stigma 
ler — irvii 

Lu — Plant names 

lubca — seaweed 
labdti— fungus 
lubdac— moW 
luhdad— mildew 
lub dam — mushroom 
lubdat— ioarfs(ou? 
lubga — lichen 
lublaf— moss 
lub lal— -liverwort 
lubmaf fern 
lubmak — horsetail 

lud — timber 
ludac— asA 
ludce — cedar 
ludci — cypress 
iudel — ebn 
ludeu — eucalyptus 
ludfi— ^r 
lud gu — guaiacum 
Itidbe — hemlock 

ludU— ilex 

ludla laitcewood 
ludlim — liine 
ludma — maple 
ludpa — palmetto 
ludpi — pine 
ludpla — plane 
ludspru- -spruce 
lu d ta — tamarind 
Judte— (eafc 
lud to — toon 
ludtu — tulip tree 
ludwa— walnut 
ludeh —ebony 
ludbo— holly 
lu dro — rosewood 
ludsan— sandal wood 
ludsat— salinwood 

lut— fruit 

lufgra — grape 

luima— melon 

1 uf inam^ Tf ( 11 skmelon 



lufnab — butternut 

lufntic— chestnut 

liifoak — cocoanut 
Ivtnai — hazelnut 
lufnap^ — peanut 
lufnaw — iralnut 
Iviia— berry 
lufrab — hlackherry 
lufrac — cranberry 
lufrad — dm-hcirii 
lufrag — gooseberry 
lufralt — curratU 
lufral — huckleberry 
Iviram.— mulberry 
lufrar — raspberry 
lufras — s Irawberry 
lutsA— seed fruit 
lufsal — lemon 
lufsan^ — orange 
lufsap— appte 
lufsaq — quince 
lufsar — pear 
lufta — stone fruit 
Itiftac — peach 
luftal— piwm 
luftap — prune 
luftar — apricot 
luftay — cherry 

- 4» — 

I lug- vegetable 

lugb — (seeds eaten) 

lugbal— lentil 

ugban — btan 

.lugbec — corn 

tugbi — pea 

luge — {fruit eaten) 

luge at — Itmmlo 
- luge ok — ohra 
■lugeu encumber 

lugd — {flowers eaten) 

1 ugdar — art ich oke 
' lugdil — lily 
j lugj — ( flower-buds) 
] Ingjai— cauliflower 
jlugjab — capers 
;lugl^ — {haves eaten) 
i luglac — cabbage 

jlugm— (Zeo/6i«/s) 
■lugmab — bnisxels sprouts 
' lugn - {ulnns eaten) 
: lugnak — sea kale 
; lugaas ~ asparagus 
.lugr — (liibt'Ts eaten) 

Ingtap— potato 
. lugt&i— Jerusalem artichoke 

lugv — (bulbs eaten) 
lugvon— onion 
lagvAg- garlic 
lugy — (root eaten) 
\vigyas— salsify 
lugy at — turnip 
hi j^ greenhouse plant 
lu j ab — abutilon 
lujac — carnation 
lujfu— /licAsi'u 
lujer — Jerusalem cherry 
hijga.— gardenia 
lujgla — gladiulus 
lujol — oleander 
luj pa— passion flower 
lu j pe — pelargon ium 
lujva — vanda 
lujn^Jloweriny plant 
lumcos — cosmos 
lumes — escksch oltzia 
lumhel— heliotrope 
lumhib — hibiscus 
lamhic— hyacinth 
lumhidp- hydrangea 

lumiv— I'py 
lumja — jasmine 
lumlab -laburnum 
lumlac— lilac 
lumlar — larks-pur 
lumla V — la vender 
lumlil — lily 
luwjaig- -mignonette 
liuona — narcissus 
lumpen — peony 
lumpet — petunia 
lumpin — pink 
hua^lo— phlox 
lumpol- -polyanthus 
haapop— poppy 
lumro — rose 

himsta-^star of Bethlehem 
lumsun — siinjlotver 
lujnsv/e^ sweet pea- 
lumtro— tropacohiiii 
lumtru — trumpet flower 
lumtu —tuberose 
lumtul — tulip 
lumwal — wall flmcer 
Inmwis— wistaria 
lun — weed 

— 51 — 

lunbu — burdock 
lunci — chicken weed 
Itmda — darnel 
lunco — cockle 
lunpig — pig weed 
Itmta — tare 

lup — gra^s 

lur — cereal 
lurba — barley 
lurbu — buckwheat 
luray — rye 
iurma — maize 
Itiro — oat 
lurri — rice 
lurwhe — wheat 

lus — fibre 
lusac — cotton 
lusfla — flax 
lushe — hemp 
lusra — ramie 

lut — ^vor 
lutan — anise 
lutcap — caper 
lutcar — cardamon - 
lutci — cinnamon 
lutco — coriander 

lutgi — ginger 

lut jo — marjoram 

lutla — laurel 

lutli — licorice 

lutma — vj^arsh mallow 

lutmi — mint 

lutpe — pepper 

luvto — tobacco 

Me — Anatomy, 

meb — 6oc?2/ 
mebe — head 
mebi —trunk 
mebo — arm 
mebu — leg 

mec — surface of body 
mecab — skin 
mecad — hide 
meceb — hair 
meced — beard 
mecek — bristle 
mecif— feather 
mecik — quill 
mecil— down 
meco — scale 
mecu — carapace 

med— part o/ head 
raedac— croicn 
medad — temple 
medaf— /ace 
medak— cheek 
medam — fmck of head 
mede — ear 
medi — eye 
medib — eyebrow 
me do — nose 
medu — mouth 
meduh— lip 
medug — gum 
meduk —tongue 
medul — palate 

mef — hand 


mefi — jlngex 

mefib— inrfez Unger Jh^ 

mefic— middfe finger ■ 

Tjie&d— third finger 

mefif — little Unger 

mefo — Iktimh 

mefu — fist 

meg — bone 

megac— sfcwH 
megaj — jawbone 
mege—trunk bone 
megec— spine 
megef — nb 
megi — armbone 
megid —scapula 
megii — hummus 
megil — idjta 
megim^ radios 
megoc — femur 
megoi^ patella 
meg ok — tibia 
megol— rtfruia 
mej — joint 
majaw— ^Vuc 
imeje — neck 
mejid — shoulder 
meiU— elbow 
mejik— wrist 
mejod— hip 
mejof— knee 
mejok — ankle 
meju knuckle 
mel nutrition 
melb— /(xW 

mek — drink 


melda — tooth 


meldi — stoma ch 

meldo — intestine 

melduT — liver 

melfa — saliva 

melfe — gastric juice 

melfi — chyle 

melfo — chyme 

melk — eat 

melka — masticate 

melke — su^allow 


melko — o ssimihitr 

mep—circulatiori of the blood 

mepfa — blood 

taepfe— arterial blood 

nxepka— wVo(/o/c 

mepke — Ihrob 

mepla — heart 

meple — artery 

mepli — capillary 

meplo — mil 

mer — broin 

meta— breath 
metib — nostril 
metik — trachea 
metu — lung 

Mi — Vocal expres- 

miaha — haha 
miak — iinack 
miark— (xirfc 
miaw — mmo 
miawl — howl 
miayn — whme 
migabl — gobble. 
mig\— giggle 
migur — growl 
mihuh— Aoof 
mikal — call 
mlkr — snicker 
mikray^ — cry 
mikro — crow 
vaikluk— cluck 
milayt — hleat 
jnilovr— low 
mimu — muo 
jnimur — midier 

miney — neigh 
miolm — moan 
miohi— roar 
miowk — croak 
mipur— purr 

misnoht — snort 
mitcp — chirp 
mitr — twitter 
miulu — ululate 
miw — mev> 
mi3rtc — screech 
miyk — shriek 
miyl — yell 
miym — screaming 

Mo — Facial or Phys- 
ical Expression 

laoh - uiipularice 
mobak^ — slam/j, champ 
moc — embarrass meiit 
laocaf— -flush 
mocal — blush 
modaf — flirt 
mof— restlessness 
moj — uncertainly 

mojavr — waver 
mok — anger 
TaokiS— frown 
molds— scowl 

molir— her 
m ona — dimp'provul 
monad— shake of head 
moni — opposition 
monif — fight 
monik — kick 
monis — struggle 
mop- — pride 
m opad — s i r ide 
mopak — stalk 
mopas — strut 
mopaw — sivagger 
mor— 'fear 
more— shrink 
mos — approval 
mosak— chier 
mosal — encouroi/e 
mosap — applaud 
mov— li'fli'fi 
moy — conxcnf 
moyd — iiud of assent 

Mu — Animal 

mueb — cell 
naiel— larva 
muem- — chrysalis 
mub— protozoan 
mubad — rhizopod 
mubar— infvsoria 
mucad — sponge 
mucak — coral polyps 
mucal — sea lily 
mucam — sta rfisk 
mucar — sea urchin 
muc&s— sea cucumber 
mud— worm, vermes 
mudad — liver fluke 
mudaf — (ope worm 
mud&k— thread worm 
mu6ka\— trichina 
Ttudam — fish worm 


Tudas — rotifer 

uf — shell fish (legless) 
ifac — sea mat 
fad — lampshell 
faf — mussel 

mufag — oyster 
mufam — snail 
muf an —nautilus 
mufas — squid 
muf at — (jclopus 
mug — arthropod {legs) 
mugbac —barnacle 
mugca — decapod {ten hi 
mugcaf — crayfish 
mugcal^ — lobster 
mugc ap — prauti 
mugcar — crab 
mugda — arachnid 
mugdab — mite 
mugdak — scorpion 
mugd al — daddylonglegs 
mugdas — spider 

i mugja — myriopod {many 

■ legs) 

! mugjak — centipede 

\ TOMgldL—orthoplera (straigki 

muglac- - locust 

■ muglaf — trickri 

jmi^na-dragon fly, odonata 
fflUgna — bug 
mugnac — chinch bug 
mugnal — plant louse, aphis 
mugpa — neuro'ptcra (nerve 

mugpad— co(Mi".« fly 
mugpal — a)U lion 
'mugrap — potato bug 
mugrat— Juhe bug 
mugsa — diplera {two wings) 
mugsaf^ — house fly 
laugs&g— gallfly 

mugta — lepidopter (scale 

mugtal — h alter fly 
mugtam- -moth 

mugva — bee 
mugwa— uioap 
mugya — ant 
muhad — tunicate 
muhaf — lancelel, acrania 
muhal — lamprey,- marsipo- 

muj — fish, pisces 
mujba— shark 
mujda— ray 
mujga ■ — ganoid 
mujgtLC— sturgeon 
muk- -reptile 
mukac— blind newt 
mukad siren 
mukag - toad 
mukaj — frog 
mukla — snake 
muklab — hua 
muklak— rattlesnake 
muklar- riper 
mukma — lizard 
laukm&p— gecko 
mukpa — eha-meUon 
mukra — alligator 
muksa — crocodile 
muktar— /trtoisc 
mul — bird, avis 
mule ^fledgeling 
muli — cock 

— 57- 

mulo — hen 

mulca — swimming bird 
mulcsLC— cormorant 
mulcad — pelican 
mulcag — gull 
mulcam — duck 
mulcim — drake 
mulcar — goose 
mvlcii— gander 
mulcas — swan 
xnulcax — flamingo 

xnulda — diving bird 
muldal — loon 
muldap — penguin 

mulf a — wading bird 
mulfaf — snipe 
mulf a j — heron 
mulfak — crane 
mulf am — plover 

mvieLg—fowly chicken 
muleg — chickj biddy 
mulig — rooster J chanticleer 
mulige — cockerel 
mulog — hen 
muloge — pullet 

Breeds of Poultry 
mulgab — bantam 
mulgac — Cochin China 
mulgad — Dorking 
mulgaf — brahma 
mulgag — gam£ 
mulgaham — Hamburg 
mulgahu — Hovdan 
mulgaj— Jat?a 
mulgal — leghorn 
mulgam — minorca 
mulgao — Orpington 
mulgap — Plymouth Rock 
mulgaq — Langshan 
mulgar — Rhode Island red 
mulgasab — black Spanish 
mulgay — Malay 

mulja — running bird 
muljab— ostrich 
muljaf — cassowary 
mujam — emu 

mulka — scratcher 
mulkag — grouse 
mulkal — partridge 
mulkam — pheasant 
mulkap — peacock 
mulkar — turkey 

muUdr — gobbler 
mulkor— Aen turkey 
raidal— pigeon 

mulina — cUmbintj bird 

mulmac — cuckoo 

mvlmad—wodd pecker 


mulpa — fiKsirosler, gaping 

mulpac — bee eater 
mulpam — swa How 
mulaq — humming bird 

jRulia-dentiroster {toulh bill) 
mulrak — Ihrush 
imils&m— starling 
mill sap — crow 
mulsaw— sparrow 
multa— o«.-i 
xaxxlva— vulture 
malvic— condor 
mulyac— eagle 
mulyai— falcon 
mulyak — hawk 

mumac — echidna 
mumad— platypun 

mumaf — possum 
mumak — kangaroo 
muna d — armadillo 
muQas — doth 
mupa— insect ivora 
mupam— mole 
mupas — Jtrew 
muq — cclaceu 
muqca — whale 
muq da — dolphin 
muqfa^ — porpoise 
Tauqka. -dnyony 
muqma- vianatee 

miirdab— Aare 
murdaf — rabbit 

m u rga — gid neapig 
\ murja — porcupine 
i muTla.~benver 
imurma mouse 

murpa— /■«( 
, muisa—sgmrrel 

mns—uiujHlate (hoofs) 
tnusab — ekphaiit 

mu sac — rk inoceros 
musad —hippopolam 
musaf — tof/ir 
musag — hog 

mUSOg— 801H 

mueal — horse 
musnil — gelding 

musol— Jnflj'e 

musmac — camel 
mu smal — Ham a 


musin — bull 
tnusoa— coto 
musoae — heifer 
muspab — li/!<'<n 
muspaf — huffcdo 
musrab^ — deer 
musr eb — faw n 
musrib — Kiag 
musrob — hind 
naiisrak — antelope 

musrik— (ij«;A; 
musTok — doe 

mustab — f/oat 
musteb — hid 
masya— sheep 

musyi— ram 
musyo— ett-'c 
mutab^ — Hon 
muteh— whelp 
mutob — lioness 
mutcab — tiger 
mutcob— ii'gress 
mutcad juguor 
mute af — panther 
mutcal — leopard 
mutad — cicdcat 
mutal— ctii 
mutif — lomcal 
mutgad — wolf 
muthaji — fii.r 
muthex -citb 
muthox — vixen 
mntjak— jackal 

mutek — pup 
mutok — bitch 

Breeds of Dogs 

mutkac^coack dog 
mutkad — dnck^hund 
mntkai^spmt iel 
mutkaj — puy 
mutkak— bulldog 
mutkal —collie 
mutkam^ shepherd 
mutk ap — puinler 
mutkaq — setter 
mutkar^ — h ound 
mutk arb — b loodhound 
mutkard — rfeerAo unrf 
mutkarf — /oxA ound 
mutkarg — greyh ound 
mutkarl — wolfhound 
mutkas— spitz 
mutkat— (erner 
mutkaw — cur 
mutkay — big dog 
mutkayb— S(. Bernard 
mutkayd— ffreo( Dane 

mutkaym— mastiff 

mutk&yn—X ewfoundland 

mutla — bear ■ 

mutmad — raccoon 

mutna— ichneumon 



mutral -weasel 

mntsa.^ seal 

mutwa— wairwa 

muva — bat 

muwa — lenitir 

muxa — monkey 

muxam —baboon 

mu xap — mandrill 

muxar — gorilla 

muzat — gibbon 

muxa V —chimpanzee 

muya — mankind 

M uy ac^ — Ca ucasia n 

Muyad — Mongolian 

Muyaf — -1 lalayan 

Muyal American 

I muye— child 
I muyi — man 
\ tauyo— woman 

-- 61 - 


The initial N negatives or reverses the signification 
conveyed by the remainder of the word. 


The initial O denotes a preposition, the correlative 
or opposite of that beginning with I. See list under 
the initial I. 

The general signification of the initial P is that of 
manufactured goods or artificial substances, as the 
initial B denotes substances found in nature. The 
manufacturing world or department of industry falls 
naturally into three grand divisions, production, dis- 
tribution and consumption. Between these divisions 
there is a season of storage. There is also in all pro- 
ductive processes an element of waste. We get from 
this the following general classifications: 

PA — Tools, instruments of production. 
PE — Receptacle, store-house. 
^ PI — Vehicle, transportation. 
PO — Foods, articles of consumption. 
PU — Waste matter, refuse. 

Pa — Instrument 

pac — engine 
pad — mechanical power 
padaf — incltTied plane 
padag — wheel and ade 
padj — wedge 
padal — lever 
padap— pwHey 
pidis— screw 

pak — pounding tool 
pakab — hammer 
p&kaj— flail 
^aikal— battering ram 
pakam— pw7!fJi 
pakat — bat 

pal — edge tool 
palb — wedge 
pale— razor 
paid — blade 
palf — knife 
pal}^ hatchet 
palk— pick 

palm — mattock 
palp — cleaver 
palrab —-b!--itoury 
palial— lancet 
pals— scythe 
paltad — Kcisaors 
palx — ax 
pam — perforn tor 
p&mAh— borer 
pamad- drill 
pamag — gouge 
pamak— corkscrew 
pamal - awl 
pan — nail 
panad— brad 
panak— tack 
pgjslok— padlock 
paq — tongs 
paqac — clutches 
paqaf— /(jrceps 
paqan— n!j)))nrs 



parb — bond 
parcad — cable 
parcap — rope 
parcaw — hawser 
pardac — chain 
pardaw — wire 
parf — /asfen ing 
parfab— brace 
paifad — braid 
parfag — girth 
parf a j -^bandage, 
parfal— (dsso 
parf an — noose 
paif as — surcingle 
pargac — cement 
paigap— pasfe 
^ana— mortar 
parp — putty 
pars — solder 

pas — peg 
pask — knob 
past — stud 
pasp — staple 
pasha^ — handU 
pasho — hook 

Pe — Receptacle 

pec — cell 
ped —pod 
peg— bag 
pek — pocket 
pel — vessel 
pern— cw/» 

pen — pan 
peq — thimble 
per— fern 
pes — store 
pev — vat 

Pi— Vehicle 

pic— tube 
picad — ditch 
picaf — drain 
picar — canal 

pid — land vehicle 
pidab — wagon 
pidac — cart 
pidal— carriage 
pidak— cqI) 

pif — vmter tekicle 
pifac— canoe 
pife — sailboat 
pif el — sloop 
pifi — steamer 

pik — airship 
pikzab — monopla ne 
pikzac — biplane 

pil — street railway 
pilac— car 
pilad — track 
pilaf — troUey 
arpUak — conductor 

pirn — beast of burden 
pip — post 
dapip— pos( office 
ar d apip ~ postmaster 
pipru — postage stamp 
icpip — by mail 
pipi — mailing 
^ipo— mailed 
pipu — mailable 
pipiuzi — stamp collector 

pipTvzo^ sinmp collection 


arpi qi— chauffeur 

pir — railway 

piraf locomotive 

aiftiiaS^eng ineer 

piiak— coach 

arpirak— CO nductor 


piralo — freight 


Po — Food 

pob — cooking maieriaU 
pobaf — flour 
pobal — lard 
poham— meal 
podep^ pantry 
podib- -bill 
podibaf — Jh'ur bin 
podu- -sink 
pofac — coffee 
pofak — cocoa 
pofat — tea 
poja — jam 
pojel— jelly 

po j od — dressin g 
pojog— gravy 
pojol — salad 
pojop — pickles 
pojos — sauce 
pojot — catsup 
pok — cooking process 
arpok — cook 
poke — with dry heat 
pokeb — bake 
pokeb — baked 
pokel — hivii 
poket — toast 
poki — in liquid 
pokib — boil 
pokic — seethe 
pokis — stew 
pokispe — stewpan 
poko — in grease 
pokof— /ry 

pol — bread 
polac — biscuit 
polaf — loaf of bread 
polarz- — rolls 
pol eb — halter cake 
polef — flapjack 

polek^ waflle 
polep— pancake 
polet— turnover 
po]i- -pastry 
polip— pie 
polo — sweets 
po\od— doughnut 
pol ok — siveetcake 
poll! — cracker 
polufz — wafers 
polvkz— flakes 

pom— meat 
pomab — I'eal 
pomaf — beef 
pomak — beefsteak 
pomar — corned beef 
pomax— beef hash 
pomeb — lamb 
pomef — mutton 
pomif — pork 
pomik — ham 
pomogz — scrambled eggs 
poiadl— omelet 

pomoyz — oysters 
pomoyk — sea Hoped 

pop— S(7Up 

popac — bTolh 
popak — con somm^ 
por — dairy product 
porac — cream 
poreb — hiUer 
pored — bu ttertnilk 
poric — cheese 
porim — smearcase 
pos — condiment 
po&ep — pepper 
posiv— vinegar 
posum — mustard 
fOt— ^mealtime 
pote — lunch 
poti — dinner 
potu — supper 
pova — dessert 
povad— pudding 
pova]— junket 
pox — hash 

Pu— Waste Matter 

pucab —rubbish 
pucad—odds and ends 
pucef — shoddy 
pucik— (rosA 

pud — dirt 
pudaj— (/rass 
pudam — sweepings 
pude— dreffs, sediment 
pudi — debris 

pufac — ashes 
puf e— cinder 

pukib — aba ndon 
pukob — abandoned 
paiai— leave 
pukol — remn ant 

puio— vegetable imste 

pumo — animal waste 

pusi— fester 
ptiso — festered 

— 67 — 


Mental philosophy classifies the mind or intellect- 
ual faculties under three general divisions, the intel- 
lect, the sensibilities or the emotional nature, and the 
will or voluntary action. Ro takes the initial R to 
represent the intellect or rational faculty, S to denote 
the sensibilities, and V for volition or the will. 

Ro subdivides the department under R into Ra, 
person, possessor of a mind, Re, the acquisition of 
ideas, including what psychology calls the presenta- 
tive faculties, and Ri, including the representive fac- 
ulty, memory, and the judgment, or thought faculty. 
Besides these faculties, concerned in the acquisition 
of ideas, there is the department of the distribution 
or communication of ideas. This we know as lan- 
guage. Language has two general divisions. The 
one is that which appeals to the ear, oral or spoken 
language, and the other that which appeals to the 
eye, namely, written or printed language. Here we 
take Ro to signify spoken language or language in 
general, as distinguished from the inarticulate cries 
of animals, and Ru to denote written or printed 
forms of communication. 

Ra — Person 

rab — individual 
rabiz — males 

raboz — females 
garabi — masculinity 
rac — people 

racal— family 
racak— dan 
racal — tribe 
racam — nation 
racar— j-ace 
Rada; — an Asiatic 
raf — comrade 
lag— child 
lagi— boy 
tragi-— boyhood 
fragi — boyishly 
letgo— girl 
ttago— girlhood' 
raj— youth 
tra j — adolescen ce 
gr a j — yo uthful ness 
f araj — youthfully 
laji—young man 
lajo- -young woman 
rak — unmarried person 
lakic— bachelor 

i firakoc — in a maidenly 

I manner 

I forakoc — in a manner un- 

i becoming to a maid 

! giiakoc—maiderdy 

i gorakoc — unmaideniff 

rakif — vndow^ 


rakol — grass widow 

rakom divorcee 

Ta\— adult 

tral— msturity 

rali— mow 

xalo — woman 

grali— manliness 


gorali — unmanly 
I gralo — womanliness 
, firalo — in a womanly way 

foralo— in an unwomanly 
I manner 
! trali — manhood 
I tralo — womanhood 

t&m — spouse 
I rami — husband 
I ramo — wife 
I ramit — bridegroom 

~ 69 — 

ramot — bride 

rap — parent 

girap — parentql 

gorap — unparental 

rapi — father 

reLpiv— father-in-law 

rapic — grandfather 

rapo — mother 

grapi — fatherliness 

trapi — fatherhood 

rapoc — grandmother 

rapod — great grandmother 

TBiqi- -uncle 

raqo — aunt 

raqic — grand uncle 

rari — nephew 

raro — niece 

rasi — son 

rasiv — son-in-law 

giras — ^h*ai 

goras — unfilial 

^SiS— filially 

foras — undutifully 

rasic — grandson 

raso — daughter 

ra^bc — granddaughter 

rati — brother 

trati — brotherhood 
rato — 5is<6r 
rav — cousin 
rawac — ra66Z6 
rawi — 6oor 
rawo — Awssi/ 
rax — commoner 
raxac — populace 
raxi — yeoman 
TBj — aristocrat 
raji— lord 
rayo — Mi/ 
raza — human race 
razi — cosmopolite 
traza — humanity 
graza — humanliness 

Re — Acquisition of 

reb — mental 
gareb — intellect 
rebac — intellectual 
garebac — intellectuality 
garebad — understanding 
rebado — understood 
geirehaf— faculty 
garebag — genius 
rebal — intelligent 



— 70 — 

garebal — intelligence 
farebal — intelligently 
f areb — mentally 
rebabi — taking note of 
rebabo — noticed 
eb rebabi —to notice 
rebeb — thoughtful 
reb ebi — thinking 
garebeb — thought 
garebec — exercise of mind 
rebed — studious 
garebed — study 
rebedi — studying 
rehedo— studied 
rebef — reflective 
garebef — reflection 
farebef — reflectively 
reb ek — deliberative 
rebeki — pondering over 
reb el — contemplative 
rebeli — contemplating 
rebelo — contemplated 
garebel — contemplation 

farebel — contemplatively 

garebeq — self-counsel 

geLTeher-assodation of ideas 

eb rebe— ^0 think 

garebne — absence of thought 
garebnec — incogitancy 
rehne— unthinking 
rebic— topic • 
rebid — subject matter 
rebif — theme 
rehoc— concept 
rebod — idea 
rebcm -^ image 
rebot — notion 

Reca — desirous of knowledge 
garecab — curiosity 
recaf — inquisitive 
garecaf — inquisitiveness 
farecaf — inquisitively 
recall — taking an interest in 
recafo — matter of inquiry 

Red — Data for reasoning 
redab — showing 
garedab — evidence 
redebna — offsetting 
gredebna — counter-evidence 
redabi — evincing 
redabo — brought in evidence 

predab — testimony 

eb redabi— to evince 

— 71 — 

eb redabni — to tell the other 

redaw— qualifying . 
garedaw — qualification 
eb redaw — to modify 

Ref — Degree of evidence 
refab — possible 
garefab — possibility 
farefab — possibly 
eb refab -^0 stand a chance 
eb ref abi~^o render possible 
refab o — made possible 
refnab — impossible 
f ar ef nab — impossibly 
garefnab — impossibility 
refac — practicable 
garefac — practicability 
garefnac — impracticability 
refad— probable 
f aref ad — probably 
garefad — probability 
refnad — improbable 
garefnad — improbability 
ref al — certain 
farefal — certainly 
i;arefal — certainty 

eba refal — to be certain ■ 

ebi refal — to render certain 
refnal — uncertain 
garef nal — uncertainty 
refam — positive 
garefam — positiveness 
farefam — dogmatically 
refasi — demonstrating 
r ef aso — demonstrated 
garefas — demonstration 
faiefeLS— demonstratively 
refasni — confuting 
refasno — confuted 
garefnas — confutation 


garek — sense of touch 
reki— feeling 
reko— felt 

garel — sense of sight 

reli — seeing 

relo — seen 

ek reli — saw 

em relo — will be seen 

garem — sense of hearing 
remi — hearing 
eb remi — to hear 
eb retao—to be heard 



7-2 — 

garep — sense of taste 
repi — tasting 
ed repo — had been tasted 
ef repi — has been tasting 
ela repi — is tasting 

gareq — sense of smell 
elreqi — smells 
ekreqo — was smelted 

gares — consciousness 
resi — to be conscious of 
reso— learned thro conscious- 
fare s — consciously 

garet — experience 
eb rati — to experience 
reto — learned by experience 

Ri Knowledge 

rib — remember 
garib — remembrance 
ribic — recollecting 
riboc — recollected 
garibac — recollection 
eb riba — to have memory 
eb ribe — to come to mind 
eb ribi — to bring to mind 

ek ribo — was brought to 

eb ribad — to have a retentive 

eb ribadi — to retain in mind 
garibad — retentiveness 
ribak — reminiscent 
garibak — reminiscence 
f arib ak —reminiscen tly 
ribali — recognizing 
ribalo — recognized 
eb ribal — to recognize 
garibal— recognition 
garibam — retrospection 
faribam — retrospectively 
ribnic — forgetting 
ribnoc —forgotten 
Tihnuc— forgetful 
garibnac — oblivion 

ricab — discover 
ricib — discovering 
ricob — found 
ricif — educing 
ricof — educed 
eb ricik — to trace out 
ricok — traced out 

ricil — solving 

ricol — solved 
rid — judge 

n6ih— judging 
lidob— jurfperf 
garid --judgment 
ridic — eshmahn g 
ridoc — estimated 
garidac — eah mo i ( H 
ridif — arbitrate 
Tidik — award 
ridil — criticise 
ridol — crit iclsed 
f sridal — critica II y 
ap ridil — o critic 
garidal — criiicism 

rifik — overestimate 
garifik — overeslirnhtion 
ep rifik— an optimist 
eb rifik — to esHrwite 

eb rifnik — to underestirr. 

rigib — believing 
rigob — believed 


liieh— getting a glimpse 

rilib — knowing 
rilob — known 
rilub — hiowable 
rilntib — unknowable 
rilnab — i(i>ioramus 
lilaih—jgnnrnnt of 
riln ob — unknown 
eb rilic — to know sys: 

tUoc— known, science 
gorilac — u nsc ten t iiic 
rili cb or — chem ist 
ril o chox-^chem istry 
rilocbe — physics 
rilocbic — meteorology 
riloebiv — aMronomy 
rilocbit — selenography 
rilocfu — geometry 
riloclic — hygiene 
' riloclu — botany 
1 rUocme— nnafomy 
.■nlocroM— zoology 
I rWocaiMg—evlnmnlogy 
of ; rHocmaj— ichthyology 

rilocmul — or nithologij 
rilocmuy— anthropology 
rilocre — metaphysics 
rilocri — philosophy 
rimna - erroneovn 
gorim — truth 
garimna— en-(w 
rimad — accurate 
rimnad ^-inaccurate 
■ f aiimad — accurately 
garimad — accuraq/ 
rimaf — precise 
faiimaf ^precinely 
garimaf — preens ion 
rimak — Tigorous 
isLiimak— rigorously 
riqnob — absurdity 
titioc— adage 
riqnoc- paradox 
riqof — proverb 
riqnof — Irish bull 
riqol — motto 
tiqnol— farce 
riqom — axiom 
riqnom sell 

liqoi -theorem 
ilqnor — quibble 
riqos — truism 
liqnos— fustian 

ris mental faculty 
risih— intelligent 
risnib — brain less 
risic —sharp 
risnic— dull 
risid — keen 
risnid — stupid 
risif — canny 
risnif — addlepated 
risig — clear-headed 
risnig — "beef-wilted 
risik — seise 
farisik — wisely 
garisik — uyisdom 
risok^wisely planned 
risnik— /(io?jsA 
f arisnik — fool ish ly 
gaiisnik— folly 
risD ok — ill-advised 
risil — sugocioiis 
risni] — silly 
garis il — sagacity 
gaiisnil— fatuity 

/o — 

7 — sanity 
r — sanely 
7 — insane 
IV — insanely 
iv — insanity 

coking forward 



\ — non-expectant 

c — unexpected 


— anticipation 

— on the watch 

f — unanticipated 

rf — without notice 



k — unlooked for 



ol — disappointment 



' — foresight 



ritsir — seer^ prophet 
nt^si— prophetic 
pritos-- prediction 
pritis — omen 
fapritis — ominously 

riv — creative thought 
rivic — supposing 
rivoc — supposed 
rivid — divining 
rivod— divined 
garivid — divination 
rivig — guessing 
rivog — guessed 
rivik — surmising 
rivok — surmised 
farivok — surmisedly 
fivil — imagining 
rivol — imagined 
garivil — imagination 
rivlid — dreaming 
rivlod — dreamed 
eb rivlid — to dream 
ap rivlod — a dream 
rivim —idealizing 
rivom — idealized 
rivir — romancing 




nvar — romantic 
rivnar — un romantic 
f arivar — romantica Uij 
ga ri var — romniiticism 
ap rivor— a romance 
ri vas — mythical 
faiivas— mythically 
ap rivos — a myth 

Ro — Language in 

rob — nature of the commun- 

robib — having a meaning 


narobib — meaningless 

eb robic — to signify 

roboc — signified 

nel robic — has no significa- 

farobic — signiUcantly 

faorobic — nonsensically 

rob if — exjn-essive 

farobif — expressiuely 

robof — expressed 

narobif — inexpressive 



lohnat— gibberish 
I zohxik— intelligible 
\ faTobuls.—i.ntelligibly 
I garobuk — intelligibilit!/ 
1 naroblik— unintelligible 
I ganrobuk — unintelligibiliiii 
I ela rqbuk — is intelUgibU 
I eke robuk — became intelli- 
] gible 

j emi robuk — will make in- 
\ telligible 
I robul — unequivocal 
I ia.aTohul— equivocally 

ganrobul -ambiguity 
I narobul — ambiguous 
I probam — metaphor 
I robira- metaphorical 
l probmal —allegory 

zohom— metaphorically ex- 

f anrobom — without the use 
of figurative language, 
tohir— interpreting 
rob or — interpreted 
eb robir— (o interpret 
eLrobnir — mis interpr,ets 

robur — capable of interpre- 
robrof— d^ined 
fiohrof^ definition 
probrok— translation 
naroburak — untrandatahle 

IOC— mode of communica- 
Tocib — manifesting 
rocob — manifested 
f arocib — manifestly 
Tocneb^ — latent 
gaiocneb— latency 
farocneb — behind the scene 
eb rocod — to be informed 
larocod — from informaiion 

■ received 
rocni d^ conceal ing 
garocnid — concealment 
procnid — screen, cover 
ro cif — disclosing 
Tocof — divulged 

procof — the acknowledgment 

danrocif — hiding-place 
procnif — rnask 
eb rocnef — to lie in ambttsh 
I rocik — publishing 
I procok — the publication 

garocik — ad of publishing 
rockof — advertised 
prockof^fAe advertisement 

rocel — news 
proclom— (Ac m£ssage 
proclop — the report 
proclor— (fte rumor 
el roclor — is rumored 
procnel~(Ae secret 
rod — vernacular, national 

Rodacbi — Chinese language 
Rodegre— (ireefc language 

The names of otlier na- 
tional languages are formed 
from the geographical 
words under Dra by chang- 
ing that syllable to Ro. 


rof — part of word 
rofa — letter 
rofe — syllable 
rofezab — monosyllable 
rofezac — dissyllable 
rofo — stem 
rofu — suffix 

roga — word 
roge — part of speech 
rogea — pronoun , 
rogee — verb 
rogef — adverb 
rogeg — noun 
rogei— preposition 
roge j — adjective 
roges — interjection 
rogeu — conjunction 
rogo — word group 
rogob — phrase 
rogoc — clause 
rogod — proposition 
rogof — sentence 
rogoj — discourse 
rogol — language 

roj — style of discourse 
rojar — perspicuous 
rojan — obscure 

rojed— diffuse 
rojef — concise 
rojik — vigorous 
rojil — /eebte 
rojop — pZain 
rojor — ornamental 
rojul — elegant 
rojun — inelegant 
garojar — perspicuity 
farojan — obscurely 

rok — name 
rokna — nickname 
garok — nomenclature 
roki — naming 
roko — named 
garoki— nomination 

rol — vocal 
role — vocalizing 
garole — vocalization 
rolec — enundatory 
garolec — enunciation 
krolec — enunciate 
krolef — vociferate 
garolef — vociferation 
role j— ejaculatory 
krolek — articulate 
garolek —articulation 

narolek — marticidate 
roll — photiftic 
garolic — acceniuaiiim 
kr olic — accentuate 
prolic — acceni 
rolim— emphatic 
krolim— em'phasize 
gerolip —pronmicialion 
krolip— proiKMtnce 
proloq — homonym 
garola V — ve ntriloquism 
naiol— voiceless 
ganarol — aphony 
kroloi — render mute 
rolno — struck dutnb 
garome — speech 
romef— cwntorica! 
kromef — orate 
promel — oratio n 
garomuf — eloque nee 
Tomuo — speak able 
Tomne^sta mmerini/ 

top — loquacious 

ropag— gurrulons 
ropat — talkalife 
garopag — garrulity 
krope — jabber 
ropna — lac iturn 
garopoa — taciturnity 
roq — talking to self 
kroq — soUloquize 
"proq — soliloquy 
gar oq — so liloquizing 

ros — allocator y 
garos — allocution 
kros — speak to 
Tosec— accosting 
ros eco — accosted 
rosedo — a ddressed 

lox— conversational 
Uiox— converse 
roxe — talking together 
garox — act of conversing 
prox — the conversation 
Toxui— a6/e to converse 
TOXUo — lalknblc. worthy of 


Ru— Written or 
Printed Language 

niba — indi cation 

lubaf -Jiffure 

rubak— e(we 

rubax — index 

rube — {for ideniificalion) 

rubeb — badge 

rubec — cipher 

rubek — ticket 


rubi — {palriolic) 
rubib — bating 
rubif — flag 
iabo—{directio n) 
rubob— beacon 
nib od — address 
Tubog — guide-post 

rue — record 
Tucab — vestige 
rucad — docum^it 
Tucek— jouraa? 
lucei— ledger 
juci — representing 
kruci — represen t 

krucni— misrepresent 

rucif — pkotogTapliing 

pTucof— photograph 


prucol — picture 

Tud^national literature 

rufa — icriling instruTnent 

rufap— pen 

rufa t— I ype-wriier 

rufapo^ — penjied 

ruf ato^i !/ pewriiten 

rufe -ink 

rufi — writing paper 

rufo — manuscript 


lufod — note 
.miol— letter 
: rug— par/ of a book 
1 rugad — line 

rugaf — paragraph 

nigaj — chapter 

rugal— paj/fi 

rugel — leaf 

rugep — binding 

ruges — cover 

rugib — title 

rugif — preface 

lUj — pundualion 
rujab — com7na 
lu jec — semicolon 
Tujad — colon 
rujaf — period 
xujap— pare nlhent-i 
Tu j aw— interrogation 
ni j ax — excla maUon 
ruk — book 
Tukad— cof/ra 
Tukam^ manual 
rukav —volume 
tukeb— aiftitm 
rukef — portfolio 
Toket— serial 
Tukim — memorandum 
tuki s — scrapbook 
ruldt — no tebook 
Tukuc — cyclopedia 
ml — printing 
mlap — press 
rulat— type 
xtde — printing ink 
Tuli — paper 
rulic— flfieet 
rulid — yuiVe 
nilif— ream 

rulik— ftunrffe 

ruloc— circular 
rutop — pamphlet 
rumid- narrator 
rum o d — narr alive 
nitnit — historian 
rumot — history 
mmiv — essayist 
lumov— treatise 
TU&el— rhyme 
rusem— meter 
rusev — verse 
rusi — poet 
ruso — poetry 
ruta — periodical 
ratal- -daily paper 
Tutak— weekly publication 
tMtal— monthly magazine 
niti s — stenographer 
gaiMtis— stenograph!/ 
ruvo — drama 
drnvi— stage 
ruzil^ librarian 
ruzol — library 

Sa — Emotion in 

gasab — frame of mind 
stihod— disposed 
gasabod— disposition 
sabal —noul 
sahU— affecting 
sac — fervid 
fasac — warmly 
gasac— /emo?- 
sadi — enduring 
sado— endured 
nasaf — apathetic 
f anasaf — cold-bloodedly 
saf al — sentim ental 
SbM — exciting 
gasafei — exciiaiion 
sal — excitable 
nasal— e!ien-(effi pered 
gasal —excitability 
sav — vekemenl 

Se — Personal Feel- 

eeb — happy 
gtiseh— happiness 
faseb — happily 
seci — pleasing 
seco — pleased 
sed — contented 
gansed— discontentment 
gasef — beauty 
nasei— plain 
gosef — ugly 
seii— fearing 
sejo— ycorff/ 
gisej —timid 
gose j — cowardly 
gasel — hope 
gisel hopeful 
gosel— despairing 
sera— courageous 
gas em — courage 
s e mi — inspiriting 
semo — encouT oflcd 

— 83 — 

Sep — rash 

fosik — hatefully 

fasep — rashly 

gasil — endearment 

seqi — desiring 

gosil — 5wZfen 

seqo — desired 

gisim — benevolent 

gaser wonder 

fosim — malevolently 

seri — astonishing 

gisip — pitying 

sero — astonished 

fosip — pitilessly 

ses— reputable 

gasir — condolence 

set — prowd 

gasit — gratitude 

iaset -proudly 

gisit — grateful 

sev — 2;ain 

fosit — thanklessly 

gasev — vanity 

gasiv — forgiveness 

Si — Sympathy, An- 

fosiv — unforgivingly 


So — Ethical 

gasib — friendship 

gisoba — n'^/i^ 

gisih— friendly 

fosob wrongly 

gosib — unfriendly 

gisoc — respectful 

gasic — sociality 

fosoc — disrespectfully 

nasic — seclusive 

gasod — approbation 

gosic — exclusive 

f osod — disapprovingly 

gasid — courtesy 

gRSoi— flattery 

gisid — courteous 

fosof — disparagingly 

f osid — discourteously 

gasog — vindication 

sif — congratulatory 

fosog — accusingly 

gasik — Zo2;6 

fisoj — uprightly 

siki — Zo?;ingf 

gosoj — knavish 

siko — Zo2;6d 

gosoVL — seljv^^v 

fiso m — tern -per a tehj 

fosop — illegally 
gisor — judicia 
goeot — condemiititory 
sovi — rewarding 
Boyno — punished 

Su — Religious 

Suda — Heaven 
Sudna Hell 
sufa — angel 
sufiia — devwn 
sujfl — heathen got! 
gisuk — pious 
gosnk— impious 
gasul — woTsh ip 
f osul — idolalrou sly 
gosur — heterodox 
sure — denominatien 
fisuv — dirriiiehj 
gasuv — divin itij 

I tab — second 
I tac — minute 
' tad — hovr 

tada — morning 
;tadab — I a. vi. 

tadac—^ a. m. 
,tadad— 5 a. m. 
jtadaf~4 a. m. 
i tadag — 5 a. m. 
\ tadal— 5 a. m. 
\ tside— forenoon 
' tadeb — 7 a. m. 
! tadec— J^ a. vi. 
; tadel— noon 
' tadi- afternoon 
'tadib — / p. m. 
'tadic — 2 p. m. 

tado — evening 
j tadu — night 
Itadub — 7 p. m. 
Itaduc— 5 p. m. 

tadug— Ji p. nt. 
! tadul — midnight 

! tat—dai/ 

j alataf — day before 

I aletaf — ijestcrdaii 

— 85 — 

alitaf — today 

Talic — August 

alotaf — tomorrow 

Talid — September 

alutaf — day after tomorrow 

talo— fourth quarter 

Taloh— October 

Tafsih— Sunday 

Taloc — November 

Tafac Monday 


Tafad — Tuesday 

Taf af — Wednesday 

tarn — season 

Taf ag — Thursday 

Tamab — Spring 

Tafal — Friday 

Tainac — Summer 

Tafam — Saturday 

Tain ad— Aviumn 

Tamaf — Winter 

tak — week 

ale tak — last week 

taq — year 

ali tak — this week 

taqzeb — decade 

alo tsik—next week' 

taqzib — century 

zactak — fortnight 

taqzob — millennium 

tal — month 

tara — lifelong 

tala — first quarter 

gatar lifetime 

Talab — January 

taza — perpelual 

Talac — February 

fataza — perpetimlly 

Talad March 

gataza — perpetuity 

tale — second quarter 

Taleb — April 

Te— Relative Time 

Talec — May 

teb — duration 

Taled — June 

tebab instantaneous 

tali — third quarter 

tebac — very brief 


\ teViadi— br^eS 

tebaf— not long 
tebal — very long 
tebar— perpetual 

tec — rdroitpeclion 
tecab— jitsf now 
tecac— !'(Tt/ lately 
tecad — luldy 
tecaf — not long since 
tecak — long ago 
tecal — very long ago 
tecar — in the beginning 

ted — prospective time 
te d ab — immediately 
tedac^very soon 
tedad — soon 
tedai —before long 
tedak^noi soon 
tedal — in the far future 
tedar — raciwr 

tef — age 
tefab — prenatal 
tefac — infantile 
tefad— Tieio, young 
tefaf — mid-age 

tefal— ancient 
tefax— eternal 

teg— date 

tegab — premature, too early 

tegac —precocious, very early 

tegad — early 

tegaf — on ilnif 

tegak— lute, tardy 

tegal — eery late 

tegar — too late 

tek — velocity 
tekab — molionless 
tekac — very slow 
tekaf — "( idspeed 
tekak — rapid 
tekal — like lightning 
tekar — instaTilaneous 

Xe\— frequency 
telab — once only 
telac— very rarely 
telad — seldom 
telaf ^'ioineti men 
teiak- often 
telal — very frequently 


teiii — occasion 
temab — no occasion for 
temac— pery untimely 
temad — inopportune 
temaf — critical time 
temak— tiinely 
temal — very opportune 
temar—iw Ike very nick of 

. ter — periodicity 
ierab — utter chance 
terac — spasmodic 
terad — desultory 
teraf — u nrelia ble 
teral— very regular 
terar — invariable 

tes — degree of assurance 
tesac— very unlikely 
tesad — improbable 
tesaf — possible 
tesak — probabh 
tesal — very probable 
tesar— absolutely sure 

U — Conjunctions 
Contrariety, Restriction 
ub — tmt 
ubre — however 
Tib re j — howsoever 
ubye — yet 
ubno — notmthstandirtg 
uble — unless 
ubex ut — except that 

Addition, Continuance 
ud — and 
udwe — as well as 
-adga— again 
udla — also 
udbe — besides 
udbo — both 
Tid mo — moreover 
udm— furthermore 
Tidve — even 
udna — nay 
udso — so 

Condition, Doubt 
uf— i/ 
ulau — unlea* 



ufpo — provided 

um—in order that 

ufpo ut — -provided that 

umle— lest 

ufex— except 

umso— 30 that 


■amsa- so as 


Separation or Choice 

VLg— though 

ur — or 

ugla— attAouflft 

cur— nor 

Hgve xjf—even if 

ure— eiiAer 

Hgve ug — even though 

nure — neither 

Ugao- -nolirilhsUtndnit{ 


nghe— albeit 

ut— that 

Cause or Reason 


uka— because 

un — than 

ukra— /or 

uz— as 


Va— Volition 

okri— as 

ukse— seeing 

vab — voliuitari/ 

ukmn— inasmuch as 


nkio—forasmuch as 

n a vab — involuntary 

ukwe— whereas 


eba vab— to have a will of 


one's own 

uifa— (Ae« 

VAC— necessary 

ulso — so 


ulra — therefore 

-vacid— destining 


v&com— doomed 

— 89 — 

ebo vac — to be driven to the 

vad — willing 

gavad — willingness 

ebi vad — to make willing 

navad — unwilling 

vaf — relentless 

gavaf — resoluteness 

eba vaf — to have determina- 

navaf — irresolute 

favaf — unhesitatingly 

vag — obstinate 

gavag — obstinacy 

navag — timeserving 

eb navag — to shuffle 

vak — persevering 

favak — thro thick and thin 

val — optional 

gaval — option 

Ec val ! — Make a choice! 

valni — rejecting 

valno — rejected 

vam — habitual 

gavam — habit 

eba vam — to be accustomed 

ganavam — desxietude 

fa vam —habitually. 
vaq — caprix^ious 
gavaq — caprice 
favaq — arbitrarily 
var — suasive 
gavar — motive 
varid — induing 
varif — persuading 
varik — coaxing 
varil — tempting 
gavaril — temptation 
vamif — dissuading 
vasi — alleging 
vaso — alleged 
at vaso —the plea 
eb vasi— <o plead 
vat — premeditated 
navat — extemporaneous 
ebi navat— <o improvise 

Ve — Prospective Vo« 

vebi — intending 
gaveb — intention 
I f aveb — desigtiedly 
vec — un intentional 
gavec — chance 
favec — accidentally 




- 90 

eb veci-^to run the risk 
veco — hazarded 
eb vecil — to lay a wager 
gavecil — betting 
vedi — pursuing 
ganaved — relinquishment 
gavef — business 
ve^-employing one's time in 
vefki — carrying on a trade 
vefri — engaged in the pro- 
fession of 
vegi — planning 
at vego — the plan 
vel — instrumental 
gavel — instrumentality 
ic vel — thro the medium of 
veli — subserving 
vemi — providing for 
yep sufficient 
navep — insufficient 
fanavep — inadequately 
el vep — suffices 

veq — redundant 

gaveq — superfluity 

faveq — too, extra 

Am el veq — That is excess- 

verab— important 
verac — useful 
gaverac — utility 
naverac — useless 
verad — expedient 
veraf — perfect 
verak — clean 
verik — cleansing 
neLverak— dirty 
veril — salubrious 
V erem — improving 
vent— restoring 
vesaf — safe 
navesaf — in danger 
davesaf — refuge 
danvesaf — pitfall 
vesik — monitory 
vesok — warned 
ve sH-r-alarming 
vesom — preserved 
veser — escaping 
vesiv — delivering 
gave siv — deliverance 

vetif — preparing 

na V etof — unprepared 

yetik— essaying 

navetok — untried 

ve tol — u ndertaken 
vetis— U81HJ/ 

Vi, Vo — Volition in 

vicab— oc/i»i(/ 

vocab — idle 

vicaf — active 

vocai— inactive 

gavicak — haute 

Tocak — at leisure 

vical — laboring 


vicim - fatiguing 

vocim — recupernlivi- 

•vicar— agent 

d a vicam — -w orkshop 

Tidib — conducting 

gavidab— co'w/ttci 

vika — difficult 


Vila — hindering 


Timic —completing 

gavomec - non-completion 

vimed - succeeding 

vomed failing 

virab — authoritative 


virac — serere 

VOTAC— lenient 

virid — com mandimj 

viiil— disobeying 

vorof — i/bcyt'l 

virok— Compelled 

viral- /rpe 

voril— restraining 

viris — comm issioning 

virav —deputized 

vis if — permitting 

vo sof ^ — prok ifnted 

vi sek — con senting 
. vosek^re/imng 
I visil— offering 

visom — requested 
; vitic — promising 

votic- releasing 
j vivid- -observing 

vixi— compromising 

Gavicak eli pu. — Haste 

makes waste 
Eb ru in Ro el voka.— 7*0 

write in Ro is easy. 
Ec ru id ab. — Write to me. 

Z— Num 


loizazerzai— 9, $99 

za—unit ze— 


zebzo— ten thousand 

zab-J zeb- 


ziizelzaXzo -666, 000 ■ 

zac— ^ zee- 


zohziizehzad— 1,913 

zad— S zed 



zaf— ^ zef- 


zac zub — (mio million 

zag— 5 zeg- 


zedz&dzuh— 33,000,000 

zal— ^ zel- 



zam— 7 zem 


zud— trillion 

zaq— 5 zeq- 


zvi— quadrillion 

zar— 9 zer- 



zebzab~J/ ■ 

zul—se zlillion 

zebzac— J^ 



znti— octillion 

zebzaf— ?4 


z ob zui^decill ion 

zubzur— u iidecillwn 

zeczac — ^^ 

zedzab— 3/ 




zih—} 00 


ziC" soo 


zidzab— 50/ 

zacdhi — second 


zaddhi— third 

zifzefxat— 444 

zafdbi — fourth 

zo— thousand 

zabdhifa -firslhj 





~ 98 — 


zabga — single 
zacga — double 
zadga — triple 
zafga.— fourfold 
zabgafa — singly 
zacgafa — doubly 
zadgafa — triply 

zabta — one time 
zacta — twice 
zadta — thrice 
zafta — four times 
zebta — ten times 

zabna — fraction 
zacna — half 
zadna — one third 
zafna — quarter 

zagna — one fifth 
zabnafa — fractionally 
zacnaf a — by halves 
zadnafa — by thirds 
zafnafa — by quarters 

zabax — power 
zacax — square 
zadax — cube 
zdiax—fourth power 
\ zebax — tenth power 
zabnax — root 
zacnax — square root 
zadnax — cube root 

zabzab — one by one 
zaczac — two by two 
zadzad — in threes 
zaf zaf — in fours 

Zafta zad el zebzac. — Four times three are twelve, 

Zadax iv zaf el zelzaf. — The cube of four is sixty-four. 

Zafax iv zad el zeqzab. — The fourth power of three is 

Zagna iv zib el zee. — One Hfth of a hundred is 20. 

Zaf ud zef el zefzaf . — Four and forty are forty-four. 

Aw ca el zacna iv zadna? — How much is the half of 

— 04 — 


Ro will win. As serenely confident that it is des- 
tined to develo]) into the future language of the earth, 
as though this w^ere already an accomplished fact, 
I desire here to make acknowledgment to a few of 
those w^ho have in one way or another helped in the 
construction of the language. 

The original impulse that drove me to the task I 
can ascribe alone to that Unseen Power in whose om- 
nipotent hand is the destiny of all existence. 

Among my teachers now passed from earthly sight, 
but who have left an indelible impress on my mem- 
ory, are Prof. John B. Powell of Ashland, Ky., with 
whom I began the study of Latin; President I. W. 
Andrews of Marietta College; Professor William 
Dwight Whitney under whose tuition I studied San- 
skrit; Professor George E. Day, also of Yale Univer- 
sity, under whom I studied Hebrew^ and Syriac, and 
Professor Charles A. Briggs of Union Theological 
Seminary. New^ York City, under whom I studied 
Arabic. * Among the professors in the universities 
of Berlin and Leipzig to whose personal teaching I 
owe much, Professor Franz Delitzsch stands out clear 
to memory. When I sat at the feet of these distin- 
guished men, it was of course before I had dreamed 
of a new language. 

— 95 - 

But when that dream came I be^aii to look up the 
subject and to read what others had written on it. 
Of such books Roget's Thesaurus has been of great- 
est service to me. I have interlined my copy of it 
from cover to cover and thumbed it to tatters. For 
numerous interesting letters and for grammars of 
Volapiik, Idiom NeutraF, and other artificial language 
attempts, all of which are stimulating and suggestive 
I am indebted to Mr. G. W. Wishard, New Rich- 
mond, Ohio, and for Couturat and Leau's Histoire 
de la Langue Vnvoerselley to Prof. O. H. Mayer of 

Ro is under obligations also to the sympathetic as- 
sistance of Mr. Nicholas Feckter, printer, Cincinnati, 
and to many newspapers for appreciative notices 
during the various stages of its progress. Among 
them are the Cincinnati Post, the first paper to men- 
tion Ro; the Washington Post; the Baltimore Sun; 
the New York Sun; the Bookseller. Newsdealer and 
Stationer; the New York Evening Post; the Spring- 
field (Mass.) Re{)ublican; the Chicago Dial; the Pitts- 
burg Post; the Cleveland Leader and many others. 

Essential to the existence of Ru Ro have been the 
printers, Mr. and Mrs. R. M. Moran, to whose typo- 
graphical skill, personal interest in the subject united 
to make the mechanical execution of the book well 
nigh flawless. All the subscribers to Wokld-Speecii,